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OG 2016 - RC Exercises


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schooling
a large number of fish or other sea animals, swimming together (=shoaling)
predator
an animal that kills and eats other animals
proponent
a person who supports an idea or a course of action (=advocate)
overlap
a shared area of interest, knowledge, responsibility, etc.
disperse
to spread or to make something spread over a wide area (=scatter)
refute
to prove that something is wrong
adopt
~ something = to start to use a particular method or to show a particular attitude toward someone or something | formally accept a suggestion or policy by voting
alter
to become different; to make someone or something different / to make changes to sth
discard
a person or thing that is not wanted or that is thrown away, especially a card in a card game
vastly
very much
compelling
that makes you pay attention to it because it is so interesting and exciting | so strong that you must do something about it | that makes you think it is true (cấp thiết, thuyết phục)
radical
concerning the most basic and important parts of something; thorough and complete | new, different, and likely to have a great effect
inadvertently
by accident; without intending to
laud
to praise sb/sth
laudable
deserving to be praised or admired, even if not really successful
assert
to state clearly and firmly that something is true
contend
to say that something is true, especially in an argument || (FOR something) to compete against someone in order to gain something
ailment
an illness that is not very serious
efficacy
the ability of something, especially a drug or a medical treatment, to produce the results that are wanted
apparently
according to what you have heard or read; according to the way something appears
preliminary
(=initial) happening before a more important action or event
proximate
nearest in time, order, etc. to something
worrisome
that makes you worry
persistent
determined to do something despite difficulties, especially when other people are against you and think that you are being annoying or unreasonable || continuing for a long period of time without interruption, or repeated frequently, especially in a way that is annoying and cannot be stopped
inconsistent WITH
if two statements, etc. are ~, they cannot both be true because they give the facts in a different way
manifest sth IN sth
(= demonstrate) to show something clearly, especially a feeling, an attitude, or a quality
duly
in the correct or expected manner || at the expected and correct time
welfare
money that the government pays regularly to people who are poor, unemployed, sick, etc
concurrent WITH
existing or happening at the same time
chronic
(especially of a disease) lasting for a long time; difficult to cure or get rid of
acute
very serious or severe || an ~ illness is one that has quickly become severe and dangerous
hub
the central and most important part of a particular place or activity
airstrip
a narrow piece of cleared land that an aircraft can land on
angler
a person who catches fish as a hobby while fisherman is a person who catches fish, either as a job or as a sport.
cluster
a group of things of the same type that grow or appear close together
circadian
connected with the changes in the bodies of people or animals over each period of 24 hours
recur
to happen again or a number of times
synchronize with
to happen at the same time or to move at the same speed as something; to make something do this
retina
a layer of tissue at the back of the eye that is sensitive to light and sends signals to the brain about what is seen
dedicate TO
(=devote) to give a lot of your time and effort to a particular activity or purpose because you think it is important
at will
whenever or wherever you like
crater
a large hole in the top of a volcano || a large hole in the ground caused by the explosion of a bomb or by something large hitting it
bout
a short period of great activity; a short period during which there is a lot of a particular thing, usually something unpleasant
bombard
to attack a place by firing large guns at it or dropping bombs on it continuously (+WITH)
more or less
almost, approximately
constituency
a district that elects its own representative to state or federal government || a particular group of people in society who are likely to support a person, an idea, or a product
ethos
the moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society
segregate FROM
to keep one thing separate from another
indignity OF
a situation that makes you feel embarrassed or ashamed because you are not treated with respect; an act that causes these feelings
perceptible
(=noticeable) great enough for you to notice it
obscure
unknown, not well known || difficult to understand
civilian
a person who is not a member of the armed forces or the police
allegiance
a person's continued support for a political party, religion, ruler, etc.
cardiovascular
connected with the heart and the blood vessels (= the tubes that carry blood around the body)
adaptation TO
the process of changing something, for example your behavior, to suit a new situation
confront
to appear and need to be dealt with by someone
counteract
to do something to reduce or prevent the bad or harmful effects of something
tilt
to move, or make something move, into a position with one side or end higher than the other
spatial
relating to space and the position, size, shape, etc. of things in it
proximity
the state of being near someone or something in distance or time
arboreal
relating to trees; living in trees
dwell
to live somewhere
posture
the position in which you hold your body when standing or sitting
momentarily
for a very short time
wiggle
to move from side to side or up and down in short, quick movements; to make something move in this way
contraction
the process of becoming smaller
torso
the main part of the body, not including the head, arms, or legs
venous
of or contained in veins (= the tubes that carry liquids around the bodies of animals and plants)
tangible
that can be clearly seen to exist
residual
remaining at the end of a process
janitor
a person whose job is to take care of a building such as a school or an apartment building
arbitrary
not seeming to be based on a reason, system, or plan and sometimes seeming unfair || using power without restriction and without considering other people
affirm
confirm
convention
the way in which something is done that most people in a society expect and consider to be polite or the right way to do it || conference
furnish
to put furniture in a house, room, etc. || to supply, to provide
commentary
a spoken description of an event that is given while it is happening, especially on the radio or television || a criticism or discussion of something
rhetoric
speech or writing that is intended to influence people, but that is not completely honest or sincere
pivotal
of great importance because other things depend on it
unwittingly
without being aware of what you are doing or the situation that you are involved in
refrain FROM
to stop yourself from doing something, especially something that you want to do
exclusion
the act of preventing someone or something from entering a place or taking part in something || a person or thing that is not included in something
depict
to show an image of someone or something in a picture || to describe something in words
take sth at face value
to believe that something is what it appears to be, without questioning it
scrutiny
careful and thorough examination
roughly
approximately but not exactly || using force or not being careful and gentle
exploit
to treat a person or situation as an opportunity to gain an advantage for yourself
stockpile
a large supply of something that is kept to be used in the future if necessary
reprise
a repeated part of something, especially a piece of music
Level 4