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Scientific discovery


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capsule
a small container with medicine inside which you swallow
carbon dioxide
the gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out
compound
a chemical that combines two or more elements
consequence
a result of a particular action or situation, often one that is bad or not convenient
dose
a measured amount of something such as medicine
emission
the act of sending out gas, heat, light, etc
exposure
the fact of experiencing something or being affected by it because of being in a particular situation or place
food chain
a series of living things that are connected because each group of things eats the group below it in the chain
infection
a disease in a part of your body that is caused by bacteria or a virus
pesticide
a chemical substance used to kill harmful insects, small animals, wild plants, and other unwanted organisms
protein
one of the many substances found in food such as meat, cheese, fish, or eggs, that is necessary for the body to grow and be strong
reaction
behaviour, a feeling or an action that is a direct result of something else
side effect
an unpleasant effect of a drug that happens in addition to the main effect
bacterial
caused by, made from, or relating to bacteria
contagious
A contagious disease can be caught by touching someone who has the disease or a piece of infected clothing
contaminate
to make something less pure or make it poisonous
controversial
causing disagreement or discussion
crucial
extremely important or necessary
essential
necessary or needed
natural
as found in nature and not involving anything made or done by people
organic
not using artificial chemicals in the growing of plants and animals for food and other products
petrochemicals
any chemical substance obtained from petroleum or natural gas
absorb
to take something in, especially gradually
release
to give freedom or free movement to someone or something
bleach
a strong chemical used for cleaning things or removing colour from things
detergent
a chemical substance in the form of a powder or a liquid for removing dirt from clothes, dishes, etc.
antifreeze
a liquid that is added to water in order to lower the temperature at which it freezes, used especially in car radiators (= cooling systems) in very cold weather
air fresheners
a substance or device that makes a room or vehicle smell pleasant:
herbicides
a chemical that is used to destroy plants, especially weeds
fertilizer
a natural or chemical substance that is spread on the land or given to plants, to make plants grow well:
disinfect
to clean something using chemicals that kill bacteria and other very small living things that cause disease:
pharmaceuticals
relating to the production of medicines:
additives
​ a substance that is added to food in order to improve its taste or appearance or to keep it fresh and stop it from decaying:
seldom
almost never:
urban myth
a commonly told story not based on fact
apart from
except for or not considering:
chemical spills
The inadvertent release of a liquid chemical regarded as hazardous to human health, irrespective of the volume or place of release—indoors or environmental—which, in a workplace, is identified with hazardous materials labels.
utterly
complete or extreme:
trickling (into)
to arrive or move somewhere slowly and gradually, in small numbers:
unveiling
If you unveil something new, you show it or make it known for the first time:
gourmet
producing or serving food that is very high quality:
attribute
a quality or characteristic that someone or something has:
wellness
the state of being healthy
low-carb
A low-carb diet limits carbohydrates — such as those found in grains, starchy vegetables and fruit
fall short of
to fail to reach an amount or standard that was expected or hoped for, causing disappointment:
floodgate
a gate that can be opened or closed to control a flow of water
rock solid
unlikely to change, fail, or collapse.
violate
break or fail to comply with (a rule or formal agreement)
mandate
to give official permission for something to happen:
bewildered
confused and uncertain:
tune out
to ignore someone or not give your attention to something or to what is happening around you:
handful (of)
a small number of people or things
wording
the choice and meaning of the words used when you say or write something:
snappy
immediately effective in getting people's attention or communicating an idea:
coronary
an extremely dangerous medical condition in which the flow of blood to the heart is blocked by a blood clot (= a mass of blood):
Level 5