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Level 11

Act 4


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'What subject can give sentence on his King? And who sits here that is not Richard's subject?' (Carlisle)
Carlisle asks who has the right to sentence the king.
'And shall the figure of God's majesty, His captain, steward, deputy-elect, Anointed, crowned, planted many years, Be judged by subject and inferior breath,' (Carlisle)
Carlisle asks whether it is right that God's chosen king should be judged by his inferior subjects.
'My Lord of Her'ford here, whom you call 'King', Is a foul traitor to proud Her'ford's King;' (Carlisle)
Carlisle says that Bullingbrooke is not a king, he is a traitor to the king.
'If you crown him, let me prophesy, The blood of English shall manure the ground,' (Carlisle)
Carlisle says that if Bullingbrooke is crowned king, then there will be civil war.
'And in this seat of peace, tumultuous wars Shall kin with kin, and kind with kind, confound;' (Carlisle)
Carlisle says that wars between friends and families will break out in England.
'Prevent it, resist it, let it not be so, Lest child, child's children, cry against you 'Woe!' (Carlisle)
Carlisle tells Bullingbrooke not to pursue the crown otherwise future generations will hate him.
'Fetch hither Ricahrd, that in common view He may surrender; so we shall proceed without suspicion.' (Bulling.)
Bullingbrooke orders that Richard be bought before them so that Richard can surrender with witnesses in order to ease his own conscience.
'I hardly yet have learned To insinuate, flatter, bow, and bend my knee.' (Richard)
Richard uses sarcasm to show his recognision that his supporters only flattered him.
'So Judus did to Christ: but he, in twelve, Found truth in all but one; I, in twelve thousand, none.' (Richard)
Richard compares himself to Christ saying that only one of Christ's supporters betrayed him.
'God save the King, although I be not he;' (Richard)
Richard graciously salutes the king, whilst recognising that that is not him.
'And yet, 'Amen', if heaven do think him not me.' (Richard)
Richard says Bullingbrooke will need God's blessing for deposing him.
'Now is this golden crown like a deep well That owes two buckets, filling one another,' (Richard)
Richard says the crown is like a well with two buckets in it.
'The emptier ever dancing in the air, The other down, unseen, and full of water: ' (Richard)
Richard says that when one bucket is light and empty, the other is heavy and full of water.
'That bucket down, and full of tears, am I, Drinking my griefs, whilst you mount up on high.' (Richard)
Richard says he is the bucket sunken with tears, whereas Bullingbrooke rises up.
'I thought you had been willing to resign.' (Bulling.)
Bullingbrooke responds to Richard's extensive metaphorical language with a simple declarative.
'You may my glories and my state depose, But not my griefs; I am still king of those.' (Richard)
Richard says his crown can be taken from him, but not his emotions.
'My care is loss of care,' (Richard)
Richard's concerns are that he has lost all his responsibility.
'Now, mark me how I will undo myself. I give this heavy weight from off my head, And this unwieldy sceptre from my hand,' (Richard)
Richard takes responsibility for his deposition and describes the burden of being king.
'With mine own tongue deny my sacred state, With mine own breath release all duteous oaths.' (Richard)
Richard takes control of his deposition and releases himself from his affiliation with God and his duties.
'God pardon all oaths that are broke to me;' (Richard)
Richard asks that those that have betrayed him are forgiven.
'Long mayst thou live in Richard's seat to sit, And soon lie Richard in an earthy pit.' (Richard)
Richard pays respect to Bullingbrooke, but comments that Bullingbrooke sits on Richard's throne. He recognises that he will soon die as a consequence.
'And send him many years of sunshine days.' (Richard)
Richard wishes many years, as God's deputy, for Bullingbrooke on the throne.
'And must I ravel out my weaved-up follies?' (Richard)
Richard asks whether he has to confess all the careless acts he has committed.
'And cracking the strong warrant of an oath, Marked with a blot, damned in the book of heaven.' (Richard)
Richard says that they are committing an act which is damned by God.
'yet you Pilates Have here delivered me to my sour cross, And water cannot wash away your sin.' (Richard)
Using a biblical allusion, Richard says they are sending him to his death, and cannot wash their hands of this crime.
'Nay if I turn mine eyes upon myself, I find myself a traitor with the rest;' (Richard)
Richard says he is also a traitor to himself.
'For I have given here my soul's consent T'undeck the pompous body of a king; made glory base, a sovereignty a slave,' (Richard)
Richard says that he has allowed himself to be deposed.
'I have no name, no title,' (Richard)
Richard says he now has no name.
'O, that I were a mockery-king of snow, Standing before the sun of Bullingbrooke, To melt myself away in water-drops!' (Richard)
Richard wishes that he could now just disappear as he has lost his identity and feels as though he is nothing.
'Give me the glass, and therein will I read.' (Richard)
Richard says he will read out his sins as he sees them in his reflection.
'No deeper wrinkles yet? Hath sorrow struck So many blows upon this face of mine, And made no deeper wounds?' (Richard)
Richard cannot believe that after all he has been through, he still looks the same.
'O flatt'ring glass, Like to my followers in prosperity, Thou dost beguile me.' (Richard)
Richard says that, like his previous supporters, the mirror flatters him.
'Was this the face that faced so many follies, And was at last out-faced by Bullingbrooke?' (Richard)
Richard shows disbelief that after so many mistakes of his, Bullingbrooke finally has taken power.
'For there it is, cracked in an hundred shivers.' (Richard)
Richard says the mirror has been broken up, as he himself has been.
'And these external manners of laments Are merely shadows to the unseen grief That swells with silence in the tortured soul.' (Richard)
Richard says that what he shows on the outside is little, compared to the awful torture of his soul.
''Fair cousin'? I am greater than a king; for when I was a king, my flatterers Were then but subjects; being now a subject, I have a king here to my flatterer.' (Richard)
Richard jokes that he is raised in status because the king compliments him.
'O good: 'convey'! Conveyers are you all, That rise thus nimbly by a true king's fall.' (Richard)
Richard uses a pun to make his final point: that they have easily risen in status as result of deposition.
Level 12