Level 1

Crime and Deviance-The Basics

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Behaviour which breaks laws and is punished by the legal system
Behaviour which goes against the norms, values and expectations of a social group or society
Deviance Changes (Foucault)
Foucault highlighted how deviance is social construct and changes throughout time. i.e.100 ago years it was deviant for women to wear trousers
He highlighted that the same act can be seen as deviant or non deviant depending on the situation and he created the terms of societal deviance and Situational deviance
Societal Deviance (Plummer)
Means acts which are seen by most of society as deviant in most situations. i.e. Child abuse abuse or violence no matter what situation is always deviant behaviours
Situationalists (Crime Prevention)
To prevent crime these believe physical changes like CCTV cameras, gated communities, street lights can prevent crime. RIGHT REALISTS like this
Lombroso (Physiological theory)
An 19th Italian doctor who claimed criminals were physiologically and genetically different .He stated criminal normally had a large jaw or extra fingers or toes
Moir and Jessel (Physiological theory)
20th century theorists who believed there are hormonal and chemical imbalances that make individuals more likely to be criminals. They say these imbalances are more likely in men which is why more men commit crimes
Bowlby (Psychological theory)
Argued that individuals who are deprived of maternal love in the first years of life are more likely to develop criminal characteristics
Eysenck (Psychological theory)
Concluded from his psychological research that those who commit crime have INHERITED NEGATIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAITS
The Chicago School
Was the first of its kind to be established in the US in 1892 and was notably influential in the study of crime and deviance
Cultural transmission theory (Chicago School)
Shaw and McKay noted how some neighbourhoods develop a criminal tradition or culture that is transmitted from generation to generation
Differential Association Theory (Chicago School)
Sutherland was interested in the processes by which people become deviant. He argued that deviance was behaviour learned through social interaction with others who are deviant. This includes learning both criminal values and criminal skills
Social disorganisation theory (Chicago School)
Park and Burgess argued that changes like rapid population turnover and migration creates instanility, disrupting families and community structures. These become unable to exercise social control over individuals resulting in deviance
Level 2