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Believes individuals commit crime because the gains outweigh the chances of being caught and punished
Right realist Wilson believes this should exist for even the small petty crimes so therefore the benefits of the crime won't outweigh the punishment anymore
Wilson and Kelling (control theory)
These use the broken window theory and believe those who live in well maintained areas feel that they are apart of society and therefore are less likely to commit crime
Broken Window Theory
The idea that tolerating just one broken window in a neighbourhood sends the message that you can get away with crime as the area has become neglected and lost value. This is a theory by wilson and kelling
Take Police away
Wilson and Kelling believe that this should happen in areas where law has broken down i.e. Ghettos. Wilson believes its wasteful trying to prevent crime in ghettos and he believes they should be left in decline
Herrnstein and Wilson
Claim there's a biological predisposition to crime in some individuals but with the right socialisation they can trained away from it. And that biological differences between individuals make some people innately predisposed to commit crimes then others. They argue the main cause of crime is low intelligence, which they also see as biologically determined.
Single Parent Children
Right realists Wilson and Herrnstein argue these children are more likely to be criminals as their socialisation hasn't been complete
Claims that the higher the risk of going to prison the less likely people are to commit crime
Jones (right realist critic)
Questions the Right Realist assertion that resources put into run down areas are wasted. He argues that investment is what will improve these areas
Didn't find any evidence that tolerating broken windows lead to crime, which indicates that Wilson and Kellings theory is purely theoretical
Routine Activity Theory
Felson's theory that for crime to occur a suitable victim, motivated offender and absent guardian is needed. And in Urban areas there are MORE suitable victims and less guardians as communities arent close knit
US Prison Population
Critics argue that clearly the right realist zero tolerance theory doesn't work because America has a huge problem of rise in prisoners
America's zero tolerance policy which was heavily influenced by right realism is where THREE serious offences automatically result in life imprisonment
His routine activity theory argues that for crime to occur, there must be: i) A motivated offender, a suitable target and the absence of a 'capable guardian' (e.g. policeman, neighbour. ii) Offenders act rationally, so the presence of a guardian is likely to deter them.
(RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY) Deciding to commit crime is a CHOICE based on a rational choice of calculation of the consequences. If the rewards of crime appear to outweigh the costs, then people will be more likely to offend. RRs argue that crime rate is high because the perceived costs are low; e.g. little risk of being caught and lenient punishments.
(routine activity theory) Felson notes the criminal take a conscious choice to commit crime and are encouraged to do so
(routine activity theory) Felson notes there has to be a victim that is vulnerable, whether that be physically weak or a property that looks vacant etc in order for the crime to occur
(routine activity theory) Felson notes that there must not be any police or other type of authority around if crime is able to occur. Offenders act rationally so there presence of a guardian will deter them