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Concluded that the police were institutionally racist
There are very few of these in the police force and legal system, which means they may be discriminated against
Hall et al
Argue that young black people have been labelled as criminal by modern British society and have become a scapegoat for social problems in society.In the 1970s Britain’s economy was experiencing problems It was the black mugger who was to symbolise the threat of violence (scapegoat)
Unemployed Black Males
Hall says that high levels of joblessness in black men leads them to opt out of mainstream society and turn to crime
4 times likely
Metroplian Police Reported that black men are this amount more likely to be stopped and searched than white people
Said the police have a canteen culture. he thought the majority of police officers who tend to white, ADOPT racist and sexist attitudes as a way of FITTING IN
People are forgetful
(Problem with victim survey's) which means people may forget events that happened to them earlier on in life. Some events may also be so traumatic that they are blocked from memories
Some men, including many l/c and ethnic minority men, lack the resources to accomplish hegemonic masculinity and so turn to crime.
note that there have been many allegations of oppressive policing of minority communities, including mass stop and search operations, paramilitary tactics, expressive surveillance, armed raids, police violence and deaths in custody. Which all increase the rate of catching black males (STOP AND SEARCH)
(ETHNICITY AND CRIMINALISATION - SELF-REPORT STUDIES) found that blacks and whites had almost identical rates of offending, while Asians had much lower rates. (Discredit the stereotype of blacks as being more likely then whites to offend).
Lea and Young
they see crime as the product of relative deprivation, subculture and marginalisation. -> Some unemployed black youths resort to utilitarian crime to cope with relative deprivation. HOWEVER DOESNT EXPLAIN WHY BLACK GIRLS COMMIT LESS CRIME
Believes in the idea of ANTICOLONIAL STRUGGLES, this is the notion that blacks resist to western white control and this is why blacks commit more crime, However WHY DONT INDIANS COMMIT SAME LEVELS OF CRIME
Lea and Young
Criticizes Gilroy anti colonial theory and argues hat 1st generation immigrants were law-abiding; it's unlikely they passed on a tradition of anti-colonial struggle.