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Media and its Audiences Part 2


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Cultural Effects Model
This does not regard audiences as simply passive consumers of media texts nor does it believe in opinion leaders it instead believes that our beliefs, social circumstances and experiences affect how audiences take in the media. This model is adopted by Hall, Selective filter model and the work via the GMG
McQuail
He agreed that different individuals and groups of people use the media to satisfy their needs. Viewers can make choices on what to watch, men watch sports and old people watch quizzes. Pluralists highlight this as an example of how media caters to many different demands
Crewe
Found that when The Sun newspaper in the 1970s shifted its political from Labour to the conservatives. Crewe found over a longer period of time, readers voting behaviour did change
Cantril
He believed the reason panicked out of the War of Worlds broadcast was due to cultural context of the financial crisis and threat of war. People were already fearing bad reports so this made them more likely to believe this story
Stuart Hall
Neo Marxist that argued the media has dominant ideological messages encoded into it, but that people of different backgrounds can to an extent 'decode' these messages in different ways
Images of Women (effects of media over time)
In the media they create stereotypical images and place expectations on girls appearances. There continues to be a long running feminist campaign remove page 3 girls which enforce the objectification of women
Cultural Effects Criticism
It exaggerates the active role of audiences and as Philo points forgets the strong influence of mass media in forming social attitudes and beliefs
Uses and Gratification theory
A functionalist theory that people use the media to meet their needs and therefore media diets are unique, this links to McQuails theory
Selective Filter Model
This theory says audiences choose which media to experience and also control parts as they pick messages which fit their view of the world and ignore the rest e.g. A liberal will ignore Fox news
Fiske
Says individuals become very experienced readers of the media and they can understand one media text in several different ways on different levels
Klapper
Argued that get its message across the media has to go through THREE selective filters. These three filters mean its easier for the media reinforce ideas then change there minds due to these hard filters
Selective Exposure
(KLAPPER) People only consume and are exposed to the media they WANT and are able to get i.e. a Freeview consumer wont be able to watch Game of Thrones on Sky Atlantic as they cant get it
Selective Perception
(KLAPPER) People will react differently to the same message and will accecp or reject a message based on whether it fits in with their own views or not
Selective Retention
(KLAPPER) People only remember the parts of the media text that they agree with
Power of the Individual
The selective filters emphasises this and our power to control our experience of this media and in a sophisticated way
Structured Interpretation Model
This theory says theres a dominant interpretation of media message which audiences go along with. E.g. The movie "The Pursuit of Happyness" wants you to find the movie inspiring rather than a harrowing portrays of homelessness.
Reality TV
Are normally structured and false yet they get treated by the press and audiences as if the situations are real. Postmodernists point to this as an example of how our reality and media are blurred
Simulacrum
A idea that something looks real but isn't Postmodernists say that these simulacrum (the media) actually replace reality
Jean Baudrillard
Suggested that mass media society has been replaced by simulacra. He called this replacement of images HYPERREALITY. The news and reality TV are good examples of this
Gulf War
Baudrillard argued this 1991 war existed more as images/ a hyperreality on our news than as actual fighting
Critics of Baudrillard
He's criticised for his ideas being too obscure and difficult and also too theoretical and not backed up with any evidence
Daily Mirror 2003
Was deeply opposed to the Iraq war and much of the content was anti iraq however OVER HALF OF ITS READERS SUPPORTED THE WAR. This suggests that people can form different views beyond what the media tells them this supports Hall and Klappers theories
Philo
(GMG) Is deeply opposed to Hall and Klappers three step theories and believes they underestimated hoe influential the media is. He discovered during the 1984/5 miners strike people did have strong negative views about the miners despite their socioeconomic and Political backgrounds. And this was due to such negative media coverage (remember at this time new media was non existent so people had no alternative views on the miners strike only the negative views from newspapers and broadcasts- this gives Philo's point credibility )
Level 17