Level 1

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Diction
The writer's choice of words, phrases, sentence structure and figurative language which combine to help create meaning
Formal diction
Dignified, impersonal and elevated use of language, characterized by complex words and lofty tone
Middle diction
Correct use of language but less elevated than formal diction. It reflects the way most educated people speak
Informal diction
Represents the language of everyday use and often includes slang and many simple and common words
Poetic diction
Refers to the way poets sometimes employ an elevated diction that deviates from the common speech and writing of their time
Style
Speaker or writer's manner of expression
Tone
The writer's attitude toward the work and the readers (E.g. serious, playful, formal, ironic,...)
Syntax
The way in which linguistic elements (words) are put together
Theme
The abstract concept explored in a literary work
Motif
A recurrent thematic element in a literary work; a dominant or central theme
Flashback
Action that interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time which is necessary to better understanding
Foreshadowing
Where the author drops subtle hints about the plot development to come later in the story
Antihero
A protagonist who has the opposite of most of the traditional attributes of a hero
Foil
A secondary character who contrasts with the major character
Anecdote
Short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident
Tragedy
A story that represents courageous individuals who confront powerful forces within or outside themselves with dignity when facing failure, defeat or even death
Parable
A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality or general truth
Tragic flaw
An error or defect in the tragic hero that leads to his downfall, such as greed, pride or ambition
Tragicomedy
A type of drama that combines certain elements of both tragedy and comedy
Enjambement
A line having no pause or end punctuation but having uninterrupted grammatical meaning continuing into the next line
Deism
An intellectual religious movement en vogue through the late seventeenth century up to the late eighteenth century concerned with rational rather than faith-based approaches to religion and understand
Narrator
The voice of the person telling the story
Persona
A speaker created by the writer to tell a story or to speak in a poem
Point of view
It refers to who tells us the story and how it is told
Level 2