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How to Untangle an Argument


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Conclusion Markers
Indicate that the sentence(or clause etc.) right after them is a conclusion.
Premise Markers
Indicate is that the sentence after them is a reason, or a premise, NOT a conclusion.
skeptical regress
If all premises must be justified, they must be conclusions of previous arguments, which must have premises, which must be...ad nauseam
antecedent
The sentence between the “if” and the “then” is called the
consequent
The sentence after the “then” is called its
Assuring
Indicating that there are backup reasons even though we are not giving them fully right now.
Guarding
Weakening our claims so that they are less subject to attack.
Discounting
Anticipating criticisms and dismissing them.
abusive assurances
these assurances not only do not give any reason; they also suggest that there is something wrong with you if you ask for a reason
valid
We call an argument this if and only if it is not possible that all of its premises are true and its conclusion false
sound
If an argument is valid and all of its premises are true then it is said to be
evaluative language
positive or negative language that judges the worth of something
Slanting
using evaluative terms without having reasons to do so
Level 3