Level 101
Level 102

Napoleonic Europe


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Treaty of Amiens
1802. Between France and Britain. Declared peace between the two countries.
The "shame of the princes"
German princes tried to gain as much land as possible and gain more French support over other Germans >> HRE was mauled (principalities and 45 cities disappeared). (pg. 391)
Ulm
Bonaparte's army surrounded Austrian force of 50,000 men and forces them to surrender without resistance on October 15. (pg. 393)
Trafalgar
Established supremacy of British navy for over a century. Lord Nelson destroys Spanish and French fleet off the coast of Spain on October 21. (pg. 393)
Austerlitz
A great French victory over Russia.
Treaty of Pressburg
Peace Austria makes after Austerlitz: Napoleon takes Venetia and annexes it to Italy. (pg. 393)
Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon became "protector" of this Germanic federation. (pg. 393)
Jena and Auerstadt
French smashed the Prussian army at these two battles in October, 1806. French cavalry dominated Germany. Prussian king and government took refuge in the east at Konigsburg where the Tsar of Russia and his refor…
Eylau
Bonaparte meets Russian army at this battle in East Prussia (pg. )
Freidland
Bonaparte defeats Russian army on June 14, 1807 after battle of Eylau at this location. (pg. 394)
Treaty of Tilsit
Treaty between Russia (Alex I) and France (Nap). Ended up saving Prussia (although it was shrunken to 1/2 its previous size, forced to be a French ally).
Peninsular War
Napoleon invaded Spain, desposed the king and tried to put his brother Joseph on the throne; the Spanish resisted and defeated Napoleon's army
Capitulation at Baylen
1808 French general surrendered an army corps without fighting. First time since the Revolution. (pg. 395)
Grand Duchy of Warsaw
Polish state created by Bonaparte in 1807 from the lands he took from Prussia. The Duchy was divided between Prussia and Russia at the Congress of Vienna. Hurt Alexanders feelings. (pg. 396)
Talleyrand
Bonaparte's foreign administrator who acts as a traitor by telling Alexander that Napoleon is overreaching himself and advises patience. Believes that balance in Europe will create peace. (pg. 396)
Wagram
(1809) Austria attempted a war of liberation and fought this battle against Napoleon in July. Napoleon won again. It was a short war. Napoleon allowed the Danubian monarchy of Hapsburgs to survive. (pg. 396).
Metternich
Most influential person in the Congress of Vienna who restored the monarchs to their thrones; believed in conservatism
nation of shopkeepers
Napoleon's way of describing England: they wouldn't fight wars with blood, rather with pounds sterling and would find dupes in Europe. (pg. 405)
Berlin decree
(1806) Napoleon prohibited importation of British goods into continent of Europe. (pg. 405)
order of council of 1807
(November) Neutrals might enter Napoleonic ports only if they stopped in Great Britain first. (pg. 405)
Germaine de Stael
Napoleon disliked and suppressed this writer/critic; he supported science instead. (pg. 404)
Milan decree
(December 1807) Napoleon announced that any ship or vessel that stopped at a British port, or submitted to search by a British warship at sea, would be confiscated upon arrival of a Continental harbor. (pg. 406)
Herder
German philosopher who wrote "Ideas on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind," and believed each civilization has its own character. (pg. 410)
romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Volksgeist
Term originally used by Herder in 1784 which says that all true culture or civilization must arise from the native common people of a country. In other words each country needs its own unique national character. (pg. 411)
Germany in Its Deep Humiliation
An anonymous anti-French work. Publisher was put to death. Showed the rising nationalism in Germany. From 1800 onward there would be a significant German national awakening that was increasingly anti-French in origin and tone…
Fichte
Claimed that German culture was distinctly different from French culture, and that German culture was superior. Superiority. Said Germans should assume their rightful place as the leaders of Europe. (pg. 412-413)
Addresses to the German Nation
These were the very nationalistic speeches in Berlin by Fichte that declared that their was an ineradicable German spriit that needed to be preserved from outside influences (the French). His speeches, when given, only attra…
Closed Commercial State
Fichte sketched a totalitarian system that the state planned and operated the economy of the country. Shut itself off from the rest of the world to develop its own culture. Spirit of people made a moral universe. (pg. 413)
Gneisenau
Army reformer, along with SCHARNHORST, from Saxony. Been in Hessian regiment in American War for Independence. Had observed military value of patriotism. Observed consequence of French Rev.. - said Prussia must encourage popular participation, thr…
Baron Stein
Prussian army reformer who made the caste structure of Prussia less rigid, allowed bourgeois to serve in the army as officers, and gave cities more self-government. He was also famous for his "abolition of serf…
Tugenbund
German nationalism. Moral and scientific union. League of virtue/manliness. Members (with own moral character) contribute to Germany's future.
Borodino
Napoleon defeated the Russians in a pitched battle at Borodino in 1812, but irreparably weakened his army (p.415)
Retreat from Moscow
1812, for over a century this remained the last word in military ho…
Battle of Leipzig
Also known as the Battle of the Nations; in October 1813, the combined armies of the fourth coaliton decisively defeated Napoleon and the French army. (p.416)
Frankfurt proposals
Napoleon would remain emperor. France would keep its border on the rhine. could work because allies were afraid of Napoleon. Russians wanted to go home, British had little influence. (p. 417)
Castlereagh
British foreign secretary who provided for the restoration of the French monarchy and the contraction of France to its 1792 borders during the Congress of Vienna. (p.418)
Louis XVIII
Louis XVI brother, he was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile.
Quadruple Alliance
Concert of Europe
Charter of 1814
Issued by Louis XVIII at the insistence (partly) of the liberal Tsar Alexander, but also because he HAD learned something in exile. Made NO concessions to popular sovereignty BUT would include legal equality, eligibility…
first Treaty of Paris
Settlement before Vienna Congress. Signed with Bourbons, confined France to boundaries of 1792, Napoleon exiled. Asked territorial questions (Ex: Poland). (p.418)
Polish-Saxon question
Whether Prussia will surrender its share of Poland in return of Saxony,but Austria didnt want to give up its share, this almost caused a new war among the victors.
Congress Poland
15 years. a reduce Polish Kingdom created by the Congress of Vienna. Alexander was king, constitution. same area as Grand duchy or Warsaw, but some remained in Austria. 2/5 Saxony to Poland. Shifted center of gravity further west.
Hundred Days
first hundred days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency
second Treaty of Paris
New treaty with France, more severe, since French were less repentant. changes in boundaries. 700,000,000 francs, and army of occupation
Holy Alliance
based on Christian principles, against revolution
Level 103