Level 108
Level 109

Birth of Modern Europe


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Parliament
A legislature consisting of the house of lords and the houese of commons, half were elected while half were appointed
armada
a Spanish fleet of warships sent to invade England in 1588
Magna Carta
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility
absolute monarchy
monarchy in which the king or queen has unlimited power
monarchs
These people helped unify the European peoples and weaken Feudalism
Civil War
Confederacy (the Southern states) vs. Union (the Northern states), 1861-1864
commonwealth
government founded on law and united by the agreement of the people
restoration
the time the New American colonies were founded (17th century); the restoration to power of an English monarch, Charles II, in 1660, following the brief period of Puritan ruled under Oliver Cromwell
Inquisition
church court that rid Spain of Jews and Moors as they were heretics who didn't follow the catholic doctrine as ordered by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain
Moors
Muslims from North Africa who took over Spain
heretics
people who do not agree with church doctrine
limited monarch
constitution or parliament limits a king's power
barons
nobles who were wealthy landowners
commune
a group of city-state's leading citizens
Elizabeth I
Queen of England in 1558-1603 after her father Henry VIII died.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
Louis XIV
Sun King successfully surprised discontent among the nobility and landowners through absolute monarchy and strict catholic rule. Believed in religious uniformity and helped to suppress the Jansenists
Henry the Eighth (VIII)
Broke from the catholic church because the pope wouldn't allow him to divorce his first wife
leaders of trade
Portugal in the early 1400's
Indies
Mistaken term that the first European explorers gave to American lands because of the false belief that they were off the coast of Asia
caravels
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
Prince Henry of Portugal
established a school that taught sailing, geography, map making, and astronomy
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean.
Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route
Christopher Columbus
sent from Spain by Isabelle and Ferdinand to find Asia
explorations
voyages to search for new landand wealth
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish explorer who discovered Panama in 1513
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish Explorer; in 1513 and in 1521, he explored Florida, thinking it was an island. Looking for gold and the "fountain of youth", he failed in his search for the fountain of youth but establi…
Hernando Cortex
Ruthless leader of the conquistadors, Spanish soldiers who invaded and eventually destroyed the Aztec culture
Montezuma
Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Spanish were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Aztecs
a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshiped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
Francisco Pizarro
New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
conquistador
a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the sixteenth century
Inca
A Mesoamerican civilization of South America, centered in Peru. The Inca ruled a large empire and had many cultural and scientific achievements including an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of…
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed from Spain in 1515
circumnavigate
to sail around the world
viceroy
governor of a country or province who rules as the representative of his or her king or sovereign
Sir Frances Drake
English pirate who was allowed by the English to attack the Spanish ships/ knighted by Queen Elizabeth/
The New World
North & South America. First 'discovered' by Christopher Columbus.
Colonies in the Americas
provided food, land, crops of sugar, coffee, cotton, potatoes, corn, bananas, cacao and tobacco back to the European countries who claimed those territories
African Slave Trade
started in the early 1500's
Holy Roman Empire
an empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
electors
stated in 1356 by Emperor Charles IV
petty monarchies
small independent states ruled by German nobles in the 1300's
The Habsburgs
Austrian family who were rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, starting their rule in 1438, ruling continuously until 1806.
Maximilian I
was a Habsburg
The Thirty Years War
war broke out in Bohemia in 1618 between Catholics and Protestants and ended up including much of Europe due to protestant refusal to acknowledge Ferdinand II who was catholic and elected a protestant as their king
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
Hugo Grotius
Dutch journalist who called for an international code based on natural law. Believed that one body of rules could reduce the dealing of governments to a system of reason and order
czar
A title from the Caesars of ancient Rome that Russian rulers followed and adopted
Peter the Great
First czar of Russia and a member of the Romanov Family. (r. 1689-1725)
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, supported education for women, build schools and hospitals and museums. Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
enlightened despot
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change to help their people. Catherine the Great is considered this.
Prussia
land that was once a country in northern Europe and ruled by the Hohenzollern Family. It is now divided up between Germany, Russian and Poland.
The Hohenzollern Family
Ruled Prussia and were a great power in northern Germany.
The Great Elector
the name given to Frederick William who was on the greatest Hohenzollerns. He reorganized the armies into one strong force and improved tax and encouraged agriculture, industry, and transportation
Frederick William
Known as the Great Elector, this man was the first Hohenzollern leader, to move toward absolute monarchy and built a militaristic state in Prussia/ Brandenburg.
Huguenots
a group of protestants driving out of France and welcomed in Prussia in 1685. They were weavers, glass makers, and traders.
Frederick William I
King of Prussia in 1713
Junkers
Prussian officers who were from noble Prussian families. Promoted on merit rather than wealth or social standing
Level 110