Level 113
Level 114

Ottomans Build a Vast Empire


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What are ghazis
warriors for Islam
ghazis
Most Anatolian Turks saw themselves as _______, or warriors for Islam
emir Islamic
Anatolian Turks formed military societies under the leadership of an _______, and followed strict _______ law
Osman
The most sucessful ghazi was _______
Ottomans
People in the west called Osman Othman and named his followers the _______
What was Osman's achievement
built small Muslim state in Anatolia
buying land, alliances, conquering
How did the sucessors of Osman build on the empire
gunpowder
The military success of the Ottomans was largely based in the use of _______
replaced horse archers with musketmen, and used cannons
What were the two military adjustments made by the Ottomans
Orkhan I
Osman's son was _______ who declared himself sultan.
What does sultan mean
overlord or one with power
captured Adrianople (second most important Byzantine city)
What was the most significant achievement of Orkhan I
through local officials appointed by the sultan
How did the Turks rule the people they conquered
Muslims non-muslims
(Muslims/non-muslims) had to serve in the Turkish army whereas (muslims/non-muslims) had to pay a tax for their exemption. In addition, Muslims had to make contributions require by their faith.
Timur the lame
The initial expansion of the ottoman empire was halted by _______, so called because he was injured by an arrow the leg
What were the achievements of Timur the Lame
burnt Baghdad, crushed the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara
When Timur turned his attention to China, what happened
war broke out amongst the four sons of the Ottoman sultan
Who was Mehmed I
defeated his brothers and took the throne
Who was Murad II
sone of Mehmed, defeated the Venetians, invaded Hungary, and beat the Italian Crusaders at the Balkans
Mehmed II
Who was the son of murad II
took Constantinople
What was the main military achievement of Mehmed II
dragged 70 ships over the Bosporus to the harbor
What was the daring tactic of Mehmed II that allowed him to take constantinople
When Mehmed II conquered Constantinople, what did he do in the city
opened the city to citizens of all backgrounds and renamed the city Istanbul
Who was Selim the Grim
grandson of Mehmed II, effective general, defeated Safavids, took Mecca, Medina, Cairo
Suleyman I
Who was the son of Selim the Grim
Suleyman the Lawgiver. Magnificent.
What was the title given to Suleyman I by his own people? By the people of the West?
What were the military achievements of Suleyman
conquered Belgrade, took Rhodes, captured Tripoli and North Africa, advanced into Hungary and Austria
creating a workable social structure
What was the crowning, non-military achievement of Suleyman?
What were some of Suleyman's peacetime achievements
created a law code, limited taxes, reduced government bureaucracy,
slaves
Who staffed the palace bureaucracy
devshirme
The slaves of Suleyman's bureaucracy were acquired by the _______ system
What is the devshirme system
emperor's armies drafted boys from Christian regions, trained them, converted them to islam, and trained them as soldiers
janissaries
What were the soldiers called produced by the devshirme system
janissary
The heart of the Ottoman War machine was the _______-
b
The Ottomans (were religiously intolerant/granted freedom of worship to peoples of other religions)
millets
Communities of peoples of religion other than Islam were treated as _______, or nations in the Ottoman Empire
were
Millets (were/were not) allowed to form their own religion and customs. The head of the millet reported back to the sultan
was
Suleyman (was/was not) very cultured
Who was Sinan
architect who designed the mosque of Suleyman
t
t or f: Under suleyman's ruler, there was a creative period similar to the european renaissance
What was one negative impact of Suleyman
set the new standard for inheritance (brothers of sultan stangled, sons kept prisoner in the harem)
blending
The "renaissance" under Suleyman featured great amounts of cultural _______ between Ottoman and Turkish style
sultans
Rulers of Muslim states
Suleyman the Lawgiver
Ruler who brought Ottoman Empire to its height
Safavid
Member of a Shi'a Muslim group that built an empire in Persia
Isma'il
Safavid warrior who seized most of what is now Iran
shah
Persian title meaning king
Shah Abbas
Leader during the Safavid golden age
Esfahan
Capital city of the Safavid Empire
Babur
Founder of the Mughal Empire
Mughal
One of the nomads who invaded the Indian subcontinent and established a
Akbar
Mughal ruler with a genius for cultural blending, military conquest, and art
Sikh
Nonviolent religious group that became the enemy of the Mughals
Shah Jahan
Mughal ruler who built Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
Tomb built by Shah Jahan for his wife
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death, Was a despotic ruler whose strict laws would ultimately le…
sultan
overlord "one with power", created under the Ottomans
Mehmed I
defeated his brothers and took the throne after Baghdad was burned
Murad II
defeated Venetians, invaded Hungary, overcame an army or Italian crusaders, first of four powerful sultans who led the expansion of the Ottoman through 1566
Selim the Grim
defeated the Safavids at the Battle of Chaldiran, took Cairo
Suleyman the Lawgiver/Magnificent
superb military leader, Ottomans the most powerful monarchy
Millet
communities in the Ottoman empire that were not Islamic
Mosque of Suleyman
peak of the "Islamic Renaissance" architecture
Level 115