Level 122
Level 123

Thirteen Colonies & the British Empire


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What did the Protestants/Catholics do?
They flipped with the monarchs
Anglican; Elizabeth I
What church was established under whom?
nationalistic and hierarchical
What was the structure like in the English religious setting?
Puritans and Separatists
What were the racial divisions?
Who were the Puritans?
wanted to purify the Anglican church
Who were the Separatists?
Pilgrims who wanted the elimination of state religion
Netherlands
Where did the Separatists/Pilgrims migrate?
for religious freedom
Why did the Pilgrims do such a thing?
Why were they worried one they migrated?
the were afraid the children would become "dutchified"
What was wrong with the migration?
low wages, hard work, and little chance to grow
What happened when they settled at Plymouth?
native American resistance to New England settlement was reduced by bubonic plague
What was the Mayflower Compact?
agreement to abide by majority rule
private property was established
What happened in 1628 in Plymouth?
Never dramatically, no
Was the Pilgrim migration and settlement in the Netherlands prosperous?
early intro of private property
What were the similarities between Jamestown and Plymouth?
Persecute Puritans
What was Charles the First determined to do?
Gain control of Parliament
What did the Puritans do in 1629 that led Charles I to dissolve it?
What was the Massachusetts Bay Company?
A religious colony controlled by Puritan merchants, ensured to grow by women, and they were disciplined, motivated men and women that learned from Plymouth and Jamestown
Why was it important that the charter was in the colonies?
the impact of the English Civil War was that Massachusetts Bay was self-governing during its formative years
What was the role of the church?
They had great influence and church and state were not seperated
What happened because of no love of democracy?
voting is limited to the elect and further is limited by Winthrop keeping the charter locked away
What was ironic about the Bay Colony?
it had religious intolerance and the freedom didn't even extend among all Puritans
What was the Quaker treatment?
Those who did not follow the state freedom were punished in 4 ways
homogeneous
What was the population like in the MBC?
profit motive; private property
What was good about MBC?
Who was Thomas Hooker?
he was banished from MBC and lead a group to Connecticut River Valley, first at Hartford
What was the Fundamental orders of Connecticut?
the first constitution that noted the emphasis of law rather than of men and increased church membership and voting rights
What were the 13 colonies?
Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia
By whom was Rhode Island established?
those who were banished from MBC
Who was Roger Williams?
radical who urged separation of church and state to protect religious philosophy from government officials he thought were corrupt
What were Roger's weird beliefs?
believed in separation in Church and State and that he believed the Indians were treated unjustly and that their religion may be acceptable
Who was Anne Hutchinson?
criticized sermons and clergy as not having undergone the conversions experience and was banished while pregnant
Antinomianism
What did Anne Hutchinson believe in?
Religious freedom
What develops in Rhode Island partially because different leaders have the desire to protect their philosophy from the state?
Rogue Island
What else was Rhode Island called?
What happened to Anne?
She was killed in an Indian attack in New York.
What did Winthrop say about Anne's death?
it was divine retribution proving that what she said was wrong
What was established elsewhere because of these few colonies?
religious freedom and lesser restrictions from religious intolerance as to not lose settlers
Encomienda
in the US, a land grant system started in 1503 which gave certain Spaniards an estate or tract of land in America as well as the Native American inhabitants of that land
Pope's Rebellion
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 was an uprising of most of the Pueblo Indians against the Spanish settlers in the province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México, present day New Mexico.
Conquistadores
A conqueror, esp. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Mestizos
(in Latin America) A man of mixed race
Treaty of Tordesillas
divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain and gave most of the land to Spain.
Columbian Exchange
widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492
Black Legend
phrase used to describe the anti-Spanish historical propaganda created by writers of Spanish rival powers starting in the 16th century, thought to counter Spain's increasing influence and power on the world stage
Indentured servants
form of debt bondage, established in the early years of the American colonies and elsewhere. Time of servitude could be extended. When time of service was complete, they could be given land/property; white slaves
Virginia Company
refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America; operated with identical charters but with differing territories.The Plymouth Company never fulfilled…
John Rolfe
first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas
House of Burgesses
the first legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America. Basically the earliest form of the White House in America.
Lord Baltimore
the first person to dream of a colony in America where Catholics and Protestants could prosper together.
Act of Toleration (1649)
law mandating religious tolerance for trinitarian Christians. It was the second law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies and created the first legal limitations on hate speech in the world.
Royal colony
a colony governed directly by the crown through a governor and council appointed by it
Charter colony
the King grants to the colonial government establishing the rules under which the colony was to be governed.
Proprietary colony
a colony in which one or two individuals, usually land owners, remaining subject to their parent state's sanctions, retained rights that are today regarded as the privilege of the state, and in all cases eventually became so
Jamestown
Colony founded by the Virginia Company in 1607; John Smith; first permanent English settlement in the North America; Tobacco; Powhatan Indians
James Oglethorpe
a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prisons, in the New World.
Iroquois Confederacy
a league of several nations and tribes of indigenous people of North America.
Joint-stock company
business entity which is owned by shareholders; Similar to Modern companies today
Protestant Reformation
was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The efforts of the self-described "reforme…
city on a hill
The phrase entered the American lexicon early in its history, in the Puritan John Winthrop's 1630 sermon "A Model of Christian Charity". Still aboard the ship Arbella, Winthrop admonished the future Massachusetts Bay colonists …
Martin Luther
a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity, subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punish…
Pequot War
an armed conflict between 1634 and 1638 between the tribe and an alliance of the English colonists of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes). Hund…
Peter Stuyveant and New Netherland
the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figur…
Great Puritan Migration
the migration in this period of English settlers, primarily Puritans to Massachusetts and the warm islands of the West Indies, especially the sugar rich island of Barbados, 1630-40. They came in family groups, rather …
William Bradford
an English Separatist leader in Leiden, Holland and in Plymouth Colony. He was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact and served as Plymouth Colony Governor five times covering about thirty years between 1621 and 1…
Mayflower Compact
the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the Separatists, also known as the "Saints", fleeing from religious persecution by King James of Great Britain
William Penn
an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was an early champion of democracy and relig…
John Winthrop
a wealthy English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in New England after Plymouth Colony. led the first large wav…
Harvard College
Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world
Roger Williams
English Protestant theologian who was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. In 1636, he began the colony of Providence Plantation, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. sta…
Freedom of Conscience
the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints.
Anne Hutchinson
a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the establi…
Fundamental Orders
in 1638, three Connecticut towns, Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield, chose representatives and held a general court at Hartford. At its opening session, the reverand Thomas Hooker preached a powerful sermon on the text that …
King Philip's War
was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and English colonists and their Native American allies in 1675-78
Level 124