Level 123
Level 124

Thirteen Colonies & the British Empire II


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Glorious Revolution
The bloodless accession of William and Mary to the throne of England after James II fled to England
Mercantilism
economic nationalism for the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state. It enriches the country by restraining imports and encouraging exports. The goal was supposedly to achieve a "favorable" balance of trade that w…
Salutary neglect
a term used in American history, referring to an unofficial and long-lasting 17th- & 18th-century British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to England.
Pilgrims / Separatists
16th- and 17th-century English Puritans who advocated complete separation from the Church of England
Puritans
significant grouping of English Protestants who believed that the Church of England was corrupt and that true Christians must separate themselves from it
Dominion of New England
an administrative union of English colonies in the New England region of North America. The dominion was a failure, because the colonies deeply resented being stripped of their traditional rights.
Bacon's Rebellion
an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by young Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. The colony's lightly organized frontier political culture combined with accumulating grievances, especially regarding Indian atta…
Halfway Covenant
a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Tyler Ast, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away …
Middle Passage
the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for Africa to get slaves, …
Stono Rebellion
began in the early morning hours of Sunday, September 9, 1739. 20 black slaves met in secret near the Stono River in South Carolina to plan their escape to freedom. Minutes later, they burst …
Headright system
a legal grant of land to settlers. was used in several colonies, including Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Most headrights were for 1 to 1,000 acres of land, and were given to an…
Salem Witch Trials
a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693.
Paxton Boys
frontiersmen of Scots-Irish origin from along the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania who formed a vigilante group to retaliate in 1763 against local American Indians in the aftermath of the French and Indian War…
Regulator movement
a North and South Carolina uprising, lasting from about 1765 to 1771, in which citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials. Though unsuccessful, some historians consider it a catalyst to the American Revolutionary War.
Ben Franklin
one of the Founding Fathers of the United States; As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He inve…
Jonathan Edwards
a Christian preacher and theologian. Edwards is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian, and one of America's greatest intellectuals. Edwards's theological work is broad in scope, but he was ro…
George Whitefield
an English Anglican preacher who helped spread the Great Awakening in Britain, and especially in the British North American colonies. He was one of the founders of Methodism and of the evangelical movement generally
Old Lights
Typically, if a denomination is changing, and some refuse to change, and the denomination splits, those who did not change are referred to as the...
New Lights
Typically, if a denomination is changing, and some refuse to change, and the denomination splits, those who did change are referred to as the..
Peter Zenger Trial
a German American printer, publisher, editor and journalist in New York City. Zenger printed The New York Weekly Journal. He was a defendant in a landmark legal case in American jurisprudence, known as "The Ze…
Great Awakening
Several periods of religious revival in American religious history; Began with the Presbyterians in Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
Molasses Act
which imposed a tax of six pence per gallon on imports of molasses from non-British colonies. Parliament created the act largely at the insistence of large plantation owners in the British West Indies.[1] The…
French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)
the American name for the North American theater of the Seven Years' War. The war was fought primarily between the colonies of British America and New France, with both sides supported by military units …
Fort Duquesne
He was long seen as important for controlling the Ohio Country, both for settlement and for trade. Englishman William Trent had established a highly successful trading post at the forks as early as the 17…
William Pitt
(1708-1778), Prime Minister of Great Britain 1766-1768; often known as _______ the Elder
Albany Congress
the first time in the 18th century that colonial representatives met to discuss some manner of formal union, and to discuss better relations with the Indian tribes and common defensive measures against the French, g…
Pontiac's Rebellion
a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in…
Proclamation of 1763
The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
Treaty of Paris (1763)
ended the Seven Years' War/French and Indian War
charter
a document granting special privileges from the English monarch; each describes general terms the relationship that was suppose to exist between the colony and the crown
corporate colonies
operated by joint-stock companies (ex. jamestown)
royal colonies
under direct authority and rule of the king's government (virginia after 1624)
proprietary colonies
under the authority of individuals granted charters of ownership by the king
what traditions did english colonists bring?
independence and representative government (had elections for representatives who would speak for property owners
Chesapeake colonies
In 1632, king charles I divided the virginia colony and charted a new colony located on either side of the Chesapeake bay
George Calvert
lord baltimore; given the Chesapeake colony of Maryland by King charles i as a reward for his loyal catholic service to the crown
Maryland
first of several proprietary colonies; the king thought it would give him almost total control; it became a haven for catholics
Cecil Calvert
the second lord baltimore who took control in 1632 after his father's death
Act of Toleration
to avoid persecution by the Puritans the wealthy English Catholics emigrated to Maryland and created large colonial plantations but the Protestants outnumbered them in the representative assembly; first colonial salute granting religious freedom to…
Protestant Rebellion in Maryland 1600s
in the late 1600s the protestants fought a brief civil war against the catholic proprietor and the catholics lost their right to vote in elections for the Maryland assembly
Economic problems in virginia
1660s; low tobacco prices due to overproduction brought hard times to maryland and virginia. when virginias house of burgesses raised tobacco prices, the merchants in london retaliated by raising prices on exported goods
political problems in Virginia
sir william berkeley the royal governor of virginia adopted policies that favored large planters and used dictatorial powers to govern on their behalf
sir william berkeley
the royal governor of virginia (1641-1652; 1660-1677)
Nathaniel Bacon
impoverished gentleman farmer who led a rebellion of angry western farmers against Berkeley's government
lasting problems due to the bacon's rebellion
big class differences between wealthy planters and poor farmers
unhealthy climate
why did the chesapeake colonies grow slowly?
slavery in virginia
-slaves came in 1619 aboard a dutch slave ship
Providence
in 1636 it was founded by Roger Williams in the Narragansett Bay. it was unique because it recognized the rights of native americans and paid them for the land and it provided complete religious toler…
Rhode Island
In 1644 Roger Williams was granted a charter from the English Parliaments that joined Providence and Portsmouth into a single colony. it offered religous freedom for all
Thomas Hooker
led a group of boston puritans into the valley and founded the colony of Hartford in 1636; created the first constitution in American history
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
1639; the constitution created in the colony of Hartford; the first constitution in America. It established a representative government consisting of a legislature elected by popular vote and a governor chosen by the legislature
John Davenport
in 1637 he created a second settlement in the Connecticut Valley named New Haven
New Haven
created in 1637 by John Davenport; in 1665 it joined the more democratic Hartford settlers to form the colony of Connecticut.
Royal Charter of Connecticut
granted a limited degree of self-government, including the election of the governor in Connecticut
New Hampshire
last colony founded in New England; originally part of the Massachussetts Bay it consisted of a few settlements north of boston. hoping to increase royal control, king charles ii separated it from the bay co…
New England Confederation
in 1643 Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticutt and New Haven formed a military alliance
Metacom
King Philip; chief of the Wampanoags
restoration
the time the New American colonies were founded (17th century); the restoration to power of an English monarch, Charles II, in 1660, following the brief period of Puritan ruled under Oliver Cromwell
The Carolinas
the land granted to 8 nobles as a reward for helping king charles ii gain the throne; between Virginia and the Spanish Florida. the nobles became the lord proprietors of the carolinas. in 1729 S…
South Carolina
First state to leave the Union in 1860.
North Carolina
this restoration colony had small, sufficient tobacco farms. it had few large plantations with slaves because of few harbors for trade and slave transportation. democratic views and autonomy from british control
New York
charles ii wanted to consolidate the crown's holdings along the Atlantic coast and close the gap between the New England and Chesapeake colonies. the dutch had give up New Amsterdam, Manhattan Island and the Hudson River.
James II
Renewed fears of catholic England by openly appointing Catholics to high positions in court and in the army. Fled to France in 1689 in the face of William of Orange's superior army
Peter Stuyvesant
the Dutch governor of New Amsterdam
New Jersey
in 1664 James ii divided divided up New York and gave it to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. the land was located between the Hudson river and delaware bay. to attract settlers …
quakers
members of the religious society of friends; believed in equality for all men and women, nonviolence, and resistance to military service. they believed that religious authority was found within each persons soul and no…
the holy experiment
penn wanted his colony to:
frame of government
1682-83; william penn created this to guarantee a representative assembly elected by land owners and a written constitution
charter of liberties
william penn's constitution (1701) that guaranteed freedom of worship to all and unrestricted immigration
what was unusual about william penn?
he crossed the ocean to supervise the founding of a New town on the Delaware river (philadelphia) while other colonial proprietors governed afar
how did penn attract settlers?
hired agents and published notices throughout Europe, which promised political and religious freedom and generous land terms
Delaware
this colony was created in 1702 when Penn granted the lower three counties of Pennsylvania their own assembly. the governor was the same as pennsylvania's until the american revolution but was a separate colony
Georgia
created in 1732; last of the British colonies and the only one to receive direct financial support from the home government in London
why did great britain create georgia?
wanted to create a defensive buffer to Protect the prosperous South carolina plantations from the threat of Invasion from Spanish florida
special regulations in georgia
ban on drinking rum
mercantilism doctrine
a government should regulate trade and production to enable it to become self sufficient. colonies were to provide raw materials to the parent country for the growth and profit of that country's industries
navigation acts
England's government implemented a mercantilist policy with these acts (1650-1673)
New England ship building prospered
positive effects of the navigation acts
colonial manufacturing was severely limited
negative effects of the navigation acts
how did England enforce the navigation acts?
in 1684 it revoked the charter of Massachussetts Bay because the colony had been the center of smuggling activity
what was king james ii determined to do?
in 1685 he came to the throne and wanted to increase royal control over the colonies by combining them into larger administrative units and removing the representative assemblies
Sir edmund andros
governor of the dominion of new england; he was unpopular because he levied taxes, limited town meetings, and revoked land titles
glorious revolution of 1688
succeeded in overthrowing king james ii and replacing him with william and mary. his fall from power ended the dominion of new england
why did slavery become increasingly important?
reduced migration (wages in England increased and Ended immigration)
triangular trade
after royal african company's monopoly of the slave trade expired, new england merchants followed a triangular (3 part) trade route; a ship with rum left boston and went to west africa, it then woul…
indentured servant
they were under contract with a master or landowner who paid for their passage, young people from the British Isles agreed to work for a specified period in return for room and board. They …
slavery
the system in which Africans were to be treated as lifelong laborers, never to be set free like white indentured servants
Anne Hutchinsion
She believed in antinomianism- the idea that faith alone, not deeds, is necessary for salvation. Banished from the Bay colony, she and a group of followers founded the colony of Portsmouth in 1638, not…
James Madison
father of the Constitution;4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.
Virginia Plan
Plan that addressed congressional representation in which James Madison proposed that large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania should have proportionally more representatives in Congress than the smaller states such as New Jersey and Delaware
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller sta…
Great Compromise
Connecticut Plan, provided for bicameral legislature, equal representation in Senate, House of Representatives would be proportional to population size
Three-Fifths Compromise
counted each slave as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of determining a state's level of taxation and representation
Senate
upper house of the legislature, each state elects two
House of Representatives
lower house of congress based on state population; president
Electoral College System
instituted because delegates at Philadelphia feared too much democracy might lead to mob rule, each state would get a number of electors equal to the number of senators and representatives
Federalists
those who supported the Constitution and a strong federal government, most numerous on Atlantic Coast
Anti-Federalists
opponents of the Constitution who favored a stronger state government, small farmers and westerners
Federalist Papers
Key element in the Federalist campaign for the Constitution. This was a series of highly persuasive essays written for a New York newspaper by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. The 85 essays, l…
Level 125