Level 125
Level 126

Pre-Colonial America & Colonial America


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Cultures of Central and South American (300-800 AD)
Mayas, Incas, Aztecs; All built complex civilizations; lived in highly organized societies; mined and possessed "precious metals" (principally gold); developed trade within and outside of the civilization; developed and used an accurate calendar; and religious practices were paramount.
Mostly nomadic settlements.
Cultures of North America (15th C)
Europe Moves Towards Exploration
- Renaissance brings disease and the advancement of technology developed in Europe in the late 1400s/ early 1500s (gunpowder, sailing compass, ship improvements, etc.)
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese navigator that opened a sea route to Asia around Africa in 1498.
Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route
Nation-State
Country in which the majority of the people share a common culture and political loyalies in a gov't.
Christopher Columbus
sent from Spain by Isabelle and Ferdinand to find Asia
What did Native Americans introduce to the Europeans?
- New plants/food --> Beans, corn, potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco.
- New plants/food --> Bluegrasses, sugarcane.
What did Europeans introduce to Native Americans?
Dividing the New World
Pope draws a verticle line on a map...
Conquistadores
A conqueror, esp. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama.
Magellan
Portugese navigator that was the first to circumnavigate the world in 1519-1522.
Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico.
Pizzaro
Spanish conquistador who led a small army in an invasion of the Inca Empire. He conquered the Incans and gained riches for himself and Spain.
Encomienda System
Monarchs gave land grants and Native American slaves to religious Spaniards. The "Indians" worked and gave profits to their Spanish masters.
John Cabot
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland in 1497. Gave England a claim in North America.
Verrazano
Italian Navigator explores Hudson River and NY for France in 1524.
Cartier
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France in 1535.
Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec in 1608. "Father of New France".
Hudson
English explorer employed by the Dutch who hoped to find a short cut through the North American continent. Sailed up (future Hudson)river in "New Amsterdam" (future NY).
armada
a Spanish fleet of warships sent to invade England in 1588
Joint-Stock Companies
- Pooled people's savings to support potentially profitable trading ventures.
The Virginia Company
A joint-stock company that was chartered by King James I and established Jamestown in 1607. Charter revoked in 1624.
Jamestown
Colony founded by the Virginia Company in 1607; John Smith; first permanent English settlement in the North America; Tobacco; Powhatan Indians
John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
John Rolfe
first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas
Indentured servants
form of debt bondage, established in the early years of the American colonies and elsewhere. Time of servitude could be extended. When time of service was complete, they could be given land/property; white slaves
John Calvin
French theologian, who preached "predestination", the belief that God determines and guides those who are to be saved; frequently referred to as "the elect".
Founded by King Henry VIII.
Church of England / Anglican Church
Puritans
significant grouping of English Protestants who believed that the Church of England was corrupt and that true Christians must separate themselves from it
The Plymouth Colony
established by religious seperatists seeking a Free place from the Church of England.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony
- Founded in 1629 by Puritans seeking religious freedom.
John Winthrop
a wealthy English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in New England after Plymouth Colony. led the first large wav…
Mayflower Compact
the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the Separatists, also known as the "Saints", fleeing from religious persecution by King James of Great Britain
Destruction of native Americans.
Long-Term Efects of European Colonization
charter
a document granting special privileges from the English monarch; each describes general terms the relationship that was suppose to exist between the colony and the crown
Cooperate Colonies
Colonies operated by Joint-stock companies (ex: Jamestown, before charter revoked).
royal colonies
under direct authority and rule of the king's government (virginia after 1624)
Propietary Colonies
Colonies under authority of individuals appointed by the king (ex: Maryland, Pennsylvania).
Calvert
- Lord Baltimore II, Proprietor of Maryland
Maryland Toleration Act
Proposed by Calvert and preached religious toleration for all CHRISTIANS, but was repealed.
Bacon's Rebellion / Chesapeake Revolution
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon called upon an arm of unhappy/impoverished farmers to rebel against Sir William Berkley, who favored a select few large plantation ownrs and ignored the needs of the rest. Highlighted 2 major problems:
Headright system
a legal grant of land to settlers. was used in several colonies, including Maryland, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Most headrights were for 1 to 1,000 acres of land, and were given to an…
Roger Williams
English Protestant theologian who was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. In 1636, he began the colony of Providence Plantation, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. sta…
Anne Hutchinson
a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy that shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638. Her strong religious convictions were at odds with the establi…
Rev. Thomas Hooker
- Led a group of Puritans and founded Hartford in 1636.
John Davenport
in 1637 he created a second settlement in the Connecticut Valley named New Haven
Halfway Covenant
a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Tyler Ast, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away …
King Philip's War
was an armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day New England and English colonists and their Native American allies in 1675-78
a Young Quaker convert.
William Penn and The Holy Experiment
Mercantalism / The Mercantalist Doctrine
- An economic policy which looked upon trade, colony, and wealth as a basis for a country strength; Promoted more exports than imports.
Triangular Slave Trade
North America trades rum --> Slaves in Africa--> Sugar cane in the West Indies --> Used to make more rum.
Dominance of English culture.
Structure of a Colonial Society in 18th C
The First Great Awakening
- A movement expressed by fervent expressions of relgious feeling in the 1730s and 1740s.
John Peter Zenger Trial
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. Some historians have argued the trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colon…
French and Indian war
War in North America between French and British. (aided by N.A.) British conquered.
Proposed by Benjamin Franklinin.
Albany Plan of Union (1754)
Pontiac's Rebellion
a war that was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes who were dissatisfied with British postwar policies in the Great Lakes region after the British victory in…
Proclamation of 1763
The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
Stamp Act (1765)
Lord Grenville required Revenue stamps (tax) on all printed paper in the colonies.
Townsend Acts / Intolerable Acts (1767)
allowed Private homes to be searched for smuggled goods.
First Continental Congress
colonies sent delegates to Philidelphia to decide h to react to Threats to their liberties.
Common Sense
Thomas Paine published this pamphlet that argued for the colonies to sever all ties with Britain; It was against "common sense" for a large country to be governed by a small, distance country.
Battle of Saratoga (1777)
the turning point for the Revoluationary War
Battle of Yorktown
1781, the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Strongly supported by French naval and military forces, Washington's army forced the surrender of a large British army commanded by General Charles Cornwallis
The Treaty of Paris
Britain would recognize the Existence of the US as an independent nation.
Molasses Act 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of mola…
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partly to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Quartering Act
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Currency Act
1764 Stopped colonial printing of paper money & forced colonists to pay in precious metals (often gold and/or silver)controlled by the crown.
William Pitt
(1708-1778), Prime Minister of Great Britain 1766-1768; often known as _______ the Elder
George Grenville
Responsible for British Parliament's passage of the Stamp Act.
Stamp Act Congress
9 colonial delegates attended in an attempt discuss and ultimately do away with the Stamp Act in October 1765.
Fort Louisbourg
Attacked and taken over by British and colonial armed men primarily from colony of Massachusetts. Returned to French in Treaty of Aix La Chapelle. This is an historical irony that precedes the Proclamation Line of 1763.
Level 127