Level 129
Level 130

Spread of Colonial Rule


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New Spread of Colonial Rule
New expansions of European nations to Asia and Africa in search of industrial raw materials and for markets for Western Goods; instead of Spices, Christianity, pepper, silk, and porcelain for Euro silver and gold …
The Motives of Colonial Rule
industrial countries of the West wanted new raw materials not native to their lands AND a reliable market for their manufactured goods to make profits because threatened by depression--> Imperialism and Colonialism
Imperialism
The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people
John A. Hobson
#1 promoter of Imperialism, published work called "Imperialism: A Study" saying that imperialism is a consequence of modern economy; economic concerns were tinged with political overtones and with questions of national pride and moral purpose
Jules Ferry
French Political; Says that containment and abstinence would make France a 3rd or 4th rate power and speaks of the awareness between colonialism and national survival
British Imperialists
Convinced by the theory of Social Darwinism that within the struggle between nations only the fit will survive; Karl Pearson argues this "the dead people are in very truth the stepping stones on which man…
Colonialism
Some thought to promote Christianity or build a better world with a moral purpose (Henry Curzon -" the empire was the greatest instrument for good that the world has ever seen") and Cecil Rhodes…
The Tactics
Motives changed tactics; (earlier- states were ok with dealing with existing independent states rather than est. direct control-- things were limited to trade[places] and mission work); Needed more control over territories to gain acces…
The Colonial System
Once colonial powers established control over territories est. this government in order to exploit the natural resources of the areas as well as open up markets for trade of manufactured goods and capital investments; wa…
Direct Rule + consequences
the whole mother state controls the colony as well as trade markets; colonial powers adopted policies to rid resistance and traditional cultures
Indirect Rule + consequences
local elites were removed from power and replaced by people of the mother country; local rulers refused to work with colonial masters in countries that had traditions of national cohesion and independence
Philosophy of Colonialism
Justified colonial rule with "might makes right" and pseudo scientific validation of Social Darwinism that the societies that prospered under changing cultures would survive.
Albert Sarraut
Of French Indochina; admitted that colonialism was originally "an act of force" for commercial profits but by redistributing wealth throughout the earth would result in a better life for all; advised benefits in awaiting…
Assimilation + consequences
adopted by French to help philosophize colonial problems; the effort to transform colonial societies in the Western image; resentment grew because people wanted to keep their own traditions
Association + consequences
adopted by French to help philosophize colonial problems; the process of implying collaboration with local elites while leaving local traditions alone; was never seen as desirable (went back and forth with other philosophy)
Great Britain During Colonialism
State that had little to no interest in issue, refused to practice assimilation and to keep societies culturally and racially diverse and distinct
On the Road to Mandalay
By Kipling; states that the Westernizers believed that the Great Lord Buddha was just a bloomin' idol made of mud
Colonialism in Action
French tried to est. system in colonies like in France
Raj
the "prince" of India from Great Britain; brought peace and stability to India
Colonial Reforms In India
Establish efforts to benefit the Average Indian: schooling (esp for women to become better wives-college), civil service examinations, end to inhumane aspects of tradition [Sati and endemic brigandage THUG]; est of highways, roads, RR's, telegra…
Sati
Colonial refrom in India stating that outlawed rule so that widows could remarry
Thomas Babington Macaulay + Minute on Education
Est. a school systemMember of the Supreme Council of India, drew up new educational philosophy for British subjects, argued in this document that English and other local languages (Sanscrit and Arabic) should be use…
Zamindar System
introduced to rural areas in hopes to bring collection of ag. taxes and new landed gentry who could be a foundation for imperial rule; took advantage of new authority to increase taxes and force peas…
Foreign Rule in India
women out of work, tried little to est. democratic institutions in India, did not bring science or technology, limited industrial reforms, psychological effect of Indians where GB's arrogance cut pride of Indians -- chang…
E.M. Forester
Wrote "A Passage to India" about cultural collisions in India between the English and the Indians about a British woman becoming interested in the Indian ways of life
Positive Effects of India under the British Raj for GB
Great Britain obtained access to cheap raw materials from India at cheap prices in exchange for manufactured goods, GB could extend their colonial power and empire along with national prestige
Negative Effects of India under the British Raj for INDIA
Economic: prevented from industrializing greatly, there were hardships on local industries, Zamindar System (backfires)
Negative Effects of India under the British Raj for GB
Not really any negative effects- nothing tangible, maybe increased competition with other countries/ alliances that set stage for war
Positive Effects of India under the British Raj for INDIA
GB's ruling brought India order & stability after experiencing civil wars, increased education (esp girls), rid inhumane traditions and aspects of culture; addition of infrastructure: railroads, roads, telegraphs, postal service
Colonial Regimes in SE Asia
Increased from just the Spanish Philippines & Dutch East Indies to many parts of SE Asia; after Napoleonic Wars
Samford Raffles
colonial administrator who founded a new British colony in Singapore-steam power aided ships in strait of Malacca, Singapore became a major stopping point for traffic
French in SE Asia
Feared GB's gains in Burma; had "Clandestine" missionary organization in Vietnam despite threat to Confucian doctrine and compelled Vietnamese to accept their protection-- later rule extended through Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam (French Indochina)
Thailand: King Mongkut of Siam
the only country that was able to remain independent throughout the spread of colonial rule thanks to this King; Buddhist monk, had a good understanding of the West, realized that he had to make …
Commodore George Dewey
commanded US forces which defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, winning the Spanish-American War
Senator Albert Beveridge
reflected in speech how the US found the Philippines convenient to Chinese trade; spoke of moral idealism and desire for profit of Philippines (not all Philippinos agreed)
Emilio Aguinaldo
led the independence movement in the Philippines
Nature of Colonial Rule
SE Asia: indirect rule where economic profit was primary goal
Administration and Education of Colonial Rule
indirect rule made nearly impossible in colonies from local resistance
Burma
modern Myanmar, a country of Southeast Asia between China, Thailand, and Bangladesh
Indochina
Where French used both direct and indirect rule (Cambodia and Laos left where local rulers ruled but were and French advisers council them
Economic Development of Colonial Rule
reluctant to take up "white man's burden", secure source of cheap raw materials and maintain markets for manufactured goods and industrialization undermining local industries, some better standards of living but everything was managed by Europe…
SE Asian Colonial Societies
Industrial development took place to meet needs of European populations, major cities erupted [Rangoon, Batavia and Saigon]; middle class benefited from economic activity but more apt to work in family businesses
Nouc mam
fish sauce of Vietnam under chinese ownership
Economic Development in the Countryside
Remained agricultural despite increasing economies; emphasis on cash crops to to stimulate trade of tea and rubber; plantations were converter by Euros and kept workers at poverty levels and people begin to starve from …
Shanghaied
laborers recruited by force of alcohol/drugs to work on plantations facing inhumane conditions and high taxes to pay for infrastructure
Peasants in Asia from Colonial Rule
large families where children died at infancy but improvements in sanitation and medical treatment helped fix problems and increase populations, fled to cities
State of India during Colonial Rule
infrastructure and modernizing elite, entrepreneur class, like early industrial countries; displaced peasants
Japan/ SE Asia during Colonial Rule
economy rose and prices reciprocated to colonial mother country and displaced peasants fled to cities
Westernization
Opposition and resistance made indirect rule imposible, slow to est. democratic institutions, legislative councils run by colonial rulers the first native rulers were wealthy and conservative, reluctant to broaden voting rights, some believed education could backfire
Level 131