Level 138
Level 139

Working Class & the Bourgeoisie


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Gustave Courbet
Realist artist who painted The Stonebreakers and A Burial at Ornans
Communist Manifesto
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
Henry David Thoreau
Dr. King's theory of nonviolent civil disobedience was influenced by the writings of this man
Florence Nightingale
Credited with having established nursing as an honored profession during the Crimean War in the 1850s
Bourgeoisie
Middle Class, merchants, doctors, lawyers, teachers
Ralph Waldo Emerson
author of Nature, which became the "intellectual beacon" for the "Transcendental Club" (made up mostly of local ministers); in his essay "Self-Reliance" he stated, "Whoso would be a man must be a nonconformist....Nothing i…
Madame Bovary
a novel that is a fictionalized account of the life of Delphine Delamare, the adulterous wife of a country doctor who died of grief after deceiving and ruining him
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudal…
Camera Obscura
an instrument that works by admitting a ray of light through a small hole that projects a scene, upside down, directly across from the hole
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Popular book by Harriet Beecher Stowe focusing on the negatives of slavery.
Friedrich Engels
co-author of The Communist Manifesto and author of Das Kapital, which was a forceful critique of the effects of the free market and which, in turn, became an influential factor in advancing reforms in wor…
Mary Cassatt
female figure painter who was befriended by Edgar Degas, one of the founders of Impressionism; her art focuses almost exclusively on women in domestic and intimate settings.
Claude Monet
a "plein air" (open air) artist whose painting "Impression: Sunrise," played a significant role in "giving Impressionism its name"; in 1888, he began using a different series format than before, painting the same subjec…
Sojourner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
Edourd Manet
artist was considered a flâneur and determined to shock the bourgeoisie, as he accomplished in his Le Déjuner sur l'herbe
Walt Whitman
poet who wrote Leaves of Grass and revolutionized American literature by linking the Romantic, Transcendental, and Realist movements
Proletariat
The growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wage earners.
Liberalism vs. Nationalism
Liberal belief was founded in Enlightenment values - the universal necessity for equality and freedom at the most basic level. The nationalist agenda focused on regional autonomy, cultural pride, and freedom from monarchical control. Lib…
The "Gilded Age"
American Dream was often built upon a framework of fraud and exploitation. the unprecedented expansion of New York was matched as agricultural and industrial production, economic growth, and population soared. As much as The Gi…
Marxism
The political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Charles Dickens
His novels illuminate the enormous inequities of class that existed in nineteenth-century England. While his sentimentalism sometimes verged on the Maudlin, he also had an unparalleled ability to vividly describe English reality. in depicting…
Literary Realism
literature reflecting real life, rather, than imaginary or idealistic life.
Slavery in American realist literature
The issue of slavery haunted American realist writers
Frederick Douglass
One of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement, escaped from slavery in maryland. He was a great thinker and speaker. Published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and w…
Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
depiction of the plight of slaves roused antislavery sentiment worldwide. Made the term "Uncle Tom" a derogatory label referring to anyone who is servile or deferential to white people.
Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
vigorously opposed to slavery and portrays those who supported it in a uniformly unflattering light, designed precisely to expose them. He allows his readers the chance to see the specter of racism rise u…
Honore Daumier's Rue Transnonain
direct reportage of the killings committed by government troops during an insurrection by Parisian workers in April 1834
Lithography
a method of planographic printing from a metal or stone surface
Level 140