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middle class radicals begin hosting banquets and want a republic; Universal Manhood suffrage; Liberals and Socialists ally against Conservative Monarchy
violent phase of revolution, workers riot, more barricades!!!; 1500 killed, 12000 arrests; freaked out Liberal Middle class
Emperor that ends second Republic as conservatism prevails; liberals fear the urban workers; France an Empire from 1852 to 1871
Hungarians; Hungary independent until 16th century; very nationalistic
liberal nationalist; Russian armies help crush Magyars in 1849
Why did they happen?
France: Liberalism vs. Conservatism
liberalism vs. Conservatism
What is the common theme?
Conservatives and Liberals Win
What are the major outcomes?
Why not in Russia? (3.)
1. Oppressive rule of Nicholas I
Short term causes (3.)
1. Potato Blight
What are the revolutions in retaliation to?
The failure of Governments to deal with the issues, not the issues themselves
the belief that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
Where do the problems start?
Government and Religion
What are liberals keen to separate?
What were banquets?
Large outdoor meetings to discuss things against the regime
How do banquets cause the February uprisings?
The regime grows tired of them and uses the army to clear them from the streets, causing resentment
Shows that people can affect change
Why is 1848 so disastrous for the Habsburgs?
Why 1848 for Italians and Czechs?
They have a desire for autonomy and independence
Events in Prussia
People take to the streets, but Fredrich Wilhelm IV orders troops off the street and wraps himself in the revolutionary tricolor
Makes him seem weak
Why are the actions of F-W IV resented by the army?
A liberal government
What does F-W IV introduce?
What is the problem for the governments that are installed in Paris and elsewhere?
Unable to deal with the issues that caused the revolutions in the first place, and when they make decisions (such as closing workshops) they are unpopular
What shocks the population of Europe?
The anarchy of the situation and not the failures of Government
How does this shock change the view of people?
People become more conservative as a result, will stick with old regime if there is no more anarchy
December 1848 (France)
Napoleon III becomes President (Emperor by 1852)
Where are constitutions seen?
Piedmont, Prussia (though this is a conservative one)
Better crisis management
What is better about the Governments of the 1850s?
What class of politician emerges as a result of the revolutions?
Populist Conservatives, who also begin to play the nationalist card in order to gain support
How do revolutionaries change?
They become less naïve and more ruthless
How do liberals change?
They become more conservative due to the shock of the revolutions
Short Term: Success
How successful were the revolutions?
What was the ultimate downfall of the revolutions?
Excess of overeducated men
What does education do to the men of Europe?
Leads to a rise in expectation of social scale (but there are no opportunities to match)
Problem in Germany re over education
Too many people for the same job (law and civil service)
More revolutionary discussions
More educated men mean...
Where is the problem of overeducated men most prevalent?
Expanding but underdeveloped economies such as France, Germany and Italy
Historian of Russia who calls 1848 Russia 'bipolar'