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a combination of the 39 stares in Germany created by the Congress of Vienna
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844.
Holy Roman Empire
an empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
An assembly of intellectuals who attempted to unify Germany through liberal means in 1848-1849; the dream ultimately died when Friedrich Wilhelm IV refused the crown for a unified Kleindeutschland.
small or little Germany; excluded Austria; placed Prussia in the lead role
great or large Germany; included Austria; with Austria in the lead role
German for "compromise"; transformed the Austrian Empire into the Austro-Hungarian Empire after it was defeated by Prussia in 1866
King of Prussia who appointed Bismarck to lead German unification
Friedrich Wilhelm IV
The Prussian King who refused to accept the "throne from the gutter" for a united Kleindeutschland in 1848-1849
Humiliation of Olmutz (Olmütz)
(1850) Prussia was forced to accept Austrian domination within the German Confederation; provided Prussian nationalists (like Bismarck) with a justification for increased military spending
Blood and Iron
policy of German unification put forth by Bismarck; belief that war & industry would unify Germany; this was in stark contrast with a "liberal" path toward German unification.