Level 152
Level 153

Victorian England


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fin de siecle
term meaning "the end of the century"
Victorian period
lasted from around 1830 to 1900
Prince Albert
husband of Queen Victoria
industrial revolution
It involved , the replacement of human labor by machines and the urbanization of workers to handle the new machinery and work in assembly lines rather than as farmers
the British empire of the late 19th century
It included not only England, Wales, and Ireland but also India and large parts of Africa
Sigmeund Freud
father of psychoanalysis
the unconscious
a part of the mind/self of which the individual is unaware
free association
the method used by psychoanalysts whereby patients were asked to say whatever came to mind without censoring anything
Oedipus Complex
The ideal that boys attach themselves to their mother and see their fathers as rivals. Was used to by Freud to explain that drives are present at all ages (even sexual drives). How thi…
Electra complex
the female equivalent of the Oedipus complex
Id
The basic drives of human beings, lies in the unconscious mind, Believed that sexual desire was the most important desire
Ego
Lies in the border between the conscious and unconscious mind. The sense of who you are, your identity
Superego
Lies in the conscious mind, your moral conscience, a monitor on your behavior
repression
A Freudian term for the human tendency to push undesirable wishes, thoughts, ideas, images or truths below the threshold of consciousness, to bury them in the unconscious
Nietzsche
19th century thinker who advocated the philosophy of nihilism
According to Nietzsche, who is in control of civilization as we know it
supermen who control the masses or herds or others who are conceptualized more like animals than spiritual beings
nothingness or negation
What is the philosophy of nihilism grounded on
Karl Marx
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudal…
Marx
A German man who was the father of communism. Lenin later used his ideas.
Charles Darwin
proposed the theory of evolution
the Victorian age
stereotypically known as an age of immense sexual repression
the Victorian age
age which invented the idea of childhood as a special time in life when humans are not yet fully formed
Gerard Manley Hopkins
Catholic English poet of the late Victorian age, sometimes considered an early modernist poet
Robert Browning
poet who invented the "dramatic monologue"
dramatic monologue
a poem in which a fictional speaker addresses an audience that is in the poem, and the two together perform actions that could be staged; we must piece together the meaning of the poe…
Robert Louis Stevenson
In the late Victorian period, he wrote not only children's poetry and adventures like _Treasure Island_ but a novel about repressing and releasing the beastial self called The Strange Case of Dr Jeckyll and Mr Hyde_
Mr. Utterson
the lawyer whose point of view dominates most of the story of Jeckyll and Hyde--at least until the end when a letter reveals Jeckyll's side of the story
Queen Victoria: (reigns 1837-1901)
Married to Prince Albert of Germany
Queen Victoria
set high standards for behavior among women and married couples.
William Gladstone
The Labour (Liberal) Party's leader is
Benjamin Disraeli
The leader if the Conservative Party
Reform Act of 1832:
Lowered property qualification expanded voting to middle class (1:100 to 1:32)
1846 Corn Laws
Repealed the Act that barred the importation of foreign grains
1840
Irish potato crop is wrecked by a parasitic blight
Reform Bill of 1867:
Added 1 million more men to the voting rolls
1870
When was Italy able to achieve unification?
1872
May laws
Winston Churchill
Famous for his reckless courage in war. In order to repair the British navy he (and Lloyd George) raise many taxes (or at least help make it happen), to effect conservatives, he's never ever …
1885
Voting District Reform
1911
Money bills are stripped from the House of Lords
Britain
who leads the way in the world wide abolition movement?
British Foreign Service
train people both militarily and politically
Canada
Divided in 1791 into Upper (Ontario) and Lower (Quebec) halves
Australia
Native inhabitants: Aborigines suffer a similar fate to the Native Americans
New Zealand
Incited conflicts with the Native Maori peoples, often pitted tribes against one another
Ireland
English pattern was to increase the Protestant settlers in Ulster
Cicel Rhodes
Wanted a Cairo to Cape Town railway
Suez Canal
Idea of Cairo to Capetown railway is abandoned after the _______is opened in 1869
southern Africa (Boers)
Late in the 1800 enter into conflicts with Dutch settlers in_______
Anglo-Zulu War
War between British and Zulus
1898
The Maine
Apartheid
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and mino…
India
Was perceived by most in the Foreign Service as the "Crown Jewel" of the Empire
Cotton
Chief export of the South
Sepoy Revolt
1858 Indian soldiers in the British Foreign Service rebel
WWII
fighting that started because of the rise of the Nazi party in Germany and ended with the atomic bombings in Japan
Smallpox vaccination
Edward Jenner
Charles Darwin (1859
On Origin of Species
Sepoy revolt is due to what
Indians finding out that lard is used for lubricating the bullets in the rifles
Natural Selection
Traits that are beneficial will be passed on
Gregor Mendel
Studies genetic principles in pea plants
Developed X-Rays
Wilhelm Roentgen
Physics
(Field is dominated by German scientists)
Max Plank
Quantum Theory and the discharge of energy
Albert Einstein
The General Theory of Relativity & the connection of time/space
Sigmund Freud:
Examined the connection between conscious & unconscious behaviors
Ivan Pavlov
Worked with behavioral issues, PAVLOVS DOGS. This was a way to reenforce behavior in children
romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Tchaikovsky and Delacroix
Main Contributors to Romanticism:
realism
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Charles Dickens
His novels illuminate the enormous inequities of class that existed in nineteenth-century England. While his sentimentalism sometimes verged on the Maudlin, he also had an unparalleled ability to vividly describe English reality. in depicting…
symbolism
Writing on two levels of meaning
impressionism
trying to show something as their impression of a subject or moment in time, often distinguished by the use of light
Contributors: (Impressionism)
Renoir, Monet and Manet
Post-Impressionism
(Expansion of impressionism using vivid color)
Contributors:(Post-Impressionism)
Gauguin, Van Gogh
cubism
Style that used basic geometric shapes, such as cubes
Pablo Picasso
Main contributor to Cubism
July Revolution(1830
Takes place largely because Charles X(reactionary) tries to expand royal power, replaced with his cousin Louis-Philippe.
What happens in the July Revolution?
the House of Bourbon is replaced by the House of Orleans
Constitutional Monarchy
government established under William and Mary after they signed the English Bill of Rights (their power was limited)
reign of Louis-Philippe
The period is marked by rapid industrial growth and change in French society.
Louis-Philippe
policies were markedly conservative and focused on the Bourgeoisie class.
Elect Louis Napoleon, President of the 2nd French Republic
The French grow tired of the lack of reform under the "July Monarchy"/Economic reform hadn't resulted in the accompanying political reform, which causes them to do what?
Him being a Jew (Anti-Semitism)
Trial against Dreyfus is due to what?(Why do people think he is guilty?)
1851
Louis Napoleon launches a coup against the 2nd Republic, creating the 2nd Empire, government is reinforced by plebiscite.
1851-1870
The French government is under the control of the nephew of Napoleon, Louis-Napoleon. The supporters of Napoleon III attempt to remake France into a military power however focused on empire and industrialization, not the political affairs of the Continent.
Germans
A disastrous loss to the _______ ends the Second Empire
Boulanger Affair:
Army general George Boulanger (Reactionary) attempts to seize power in a failed coup
Dreyfus Affair
Public opinion is split on Dreyfus' guilt
1906
Not until _______ is Dreyfus pardoned by the French
Major Esterhazy
Who was really behind the Dreyfus Affair?
Dreyfus and Boulanger Affair
Both incidents however prove that the Republican form of government can survive in France
Guiana
Colony on the northern coast of South America (Prison Colony)
Fashoda Incident 1898
British and French forces fight over the control of a railroad junction in the Sudan
French
Was the major power in West Africa; however the region proved to be poor in raw materials and natural resources needed for industrialization
Tahiti and Indochina
French presence in Asia and the Pacific
North to South
British wants Cairo to Capetown railroad to be from?
Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria as emperor
French installs him as emperor of Mexico but he is later deposed
Level 154