Level 153
Level 154

Reform in Russia


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Russia in the 1800s had what type of governement?
Feudalism - serfs were controlled by landowners and the czar was on top
Why did the Russians lose the Crimean War?
industries and transportation system failed to provide adequate supplies
When Alexander II abolished serfdom, why weren't the serfs completely free?
The government gave them 49 years to pay for the land they had received, so they were still tied to the land.
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
Alexander II
Became Russian Tsar
Westernizers
Those in mid-nineteenth century Russia who saw need for reform based on Western models.
Slavophiles
Those in mid-nineteenth century Russia who believed Russia had a special destiny of its own which imitation of Western Europe would only weaken or pervert.
Muzhik
Name for Russian peasants under serfdom - their situation close to Americn slavery. Used in agriculture and in the early factories. Bought and sold by landowers. They had no rights. Bulk of Russian population …
Third Section
Nicholas I (r. 1825-1855) had established this in his chancellory as a system of secret political police. Whilst not the first example of a secret police in European history, it was unparalleled for its arbitrary and inquisitorial methods.
Mir
used by St…
Act of Emancipation
By imperial ukase (edict) in 1861, this abolished serfdom - done by Alexander II (who subsequently known as "liberator czar"). Peasants were to be legally free. Land divided in half. Half went to gentry, …
Redemption Money/Payments
Money owed by peasants to gentry for the land that was distributed to them at Emancipation. Mir became responsible for organizing the payment of this.
Zemstvos
organ of rural self-government in the Russian Empire and Ukraine; established in 1864 to provide social and economic services, Generally dominated by the nobility, the zemstvos suffered after 1890 from legislation that restricted their author…
Nihilists
Dissatisfied intelligentsia in 1860s - "believed in nothing" except science. Took cynical view of Tsar and zemstvos. Some toured villages and fanned peasant discontent. Reminded peasants of Razin and Pugachev rebellions.
Alexander Herzen
Socialist who after 1848 came to believe that the true and natural future of socialism lay in Russia because of the weakness of capitalism in Russia and the existence of a kind of collectivism (communal spirit) in the mir.
Bakunin
More radical than Herzen. Was an anarchist who, with NEGHAIEV wrote People's Justice and Catechism of a Revolutionist. Said should sever all links with existing social order and live for the revolution, "...everything which prom…
People's Will
Secret terrorist society a la Bakunin. Determined to assassinate the czar. Underground organization was also a threat to liberals. Alexander II became even more liberal and abolished the Third Section, lifted censorship and on…
Alexander III
Was a reactionary
Level 155