Level 154
Level 155

New Ideas & Changes in European Society

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The revival of ancient learning and the supplanting of traditional religious beliefs by new secular and scientific values that began in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages, Renaissance.
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters. during the Enlightenment began to question practices of the church and some religious teachings.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter h…
Painted the Sistine Chapel in Rome, Italy
galileo galilei
built his own telescope and used it to study the heavens
Scientific Revolution
new way of thinking about the natural world, old assumptions with new theories
isaac newton
brought bacon and descartes views together into a single theory of motion
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Heliocentric vs. Geocentric
The argument about whether everything revolves around the sun or the Earth
The inventor of the printing press
The 1st English teacher
Elizabeth the 1st
The queen of England and the daughter of Henry the 5th
church court that rid Spain of Jews and Moors as they were heretics who didn't follow the catholic doctrine as ordered by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain
Henry the Navigator
Established a small route to help sailors and explorers
Protestant Reformation
was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The efforts of the self-described "reforme…
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Divine Right & Absolutism
The Mandate Of Heaven.
The Enlightenment
educated Americans were attracted to this European movement in literature and philosophy, believed the "darkness" of past ages could be corrected by the use of human reasoning
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rig…
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) French writer and Enlightenment philosopher who wrote a book called, The Social Contract, where he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the caus…
baron de montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving free…
The American Revolution
They wanted to be there own country away from England.
The Haitian Revolution
A named Toussaint L'Ouverlure led the slaves revolt against France landlords.(1792-1804)
The Russia Revolution
Peter the great westernized Russia
The French Revolution
A revolution to become free and become a democracy
King Louis XVI
The king of France during the revolution.
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI's wife, thought to have said "Let them eat cake"
a time of rights
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Who lost the invasion of Russia
A machine used to behead people; it was suppose to make death quick and painless
counter reformation
Catholics reformed the church
Vasco da Ganna
sailed from Lisbon, Portugal on July 8th, 1497
Martin Luther
a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity, subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punish…
if you go to confession you would have to pay a fine to the pope
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Ch…
Christoper Columbus
He sailed west to go to India, but found the new world.
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed from Spain in 1515
in the US, a land grant system started in 1503 which gave certain Spaniards an estate or tract of land in America as well as the Native American inhabitants of that land
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain. (p. 437)
Moctezuma II
He was Aztec ruler when the spanish came and ruled over much Mexico.
Francisco Pizarro
New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
Bartolome de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish sett…
Treaty of Tordesillas
divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and Spain and gave most of the land to Spain.
Columbian Exchange
widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following the voyage to the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492
An economic system that allows for individual choice, where the government does not interfere with business.
Triangular Slave Trade
North America trades rum --> Slaves in Africa--> Sugar cane in the West Indies --> Used to make more rum.
Middle Passage
the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Ships departed Europe for Africa to get slaves, …
The Door Of No Return
A symbol of the slave trades and the slaves say once though you never came back.
absolute monarch
a monarch whose power is not limited by a representative assembly
Level 156