Level 155
Level 156

Europe, 1871-1914

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Age of Steel
Name for Second Industrial Revolution and second half of the nineteenth century; steel was stronger and more durable than iron and therefore became metal of choice for buidlings and ships; led to revolution in architecture and shipbuilding
Henry Bessemer
Introduced the Bessemer Process - new method of producing steal in greater quantities without increased costs (1856)
William Siemens
Introduced improved method of making steal at a higher quality with cheaper costs
Electrical Power
Became popular in the second half of the nineteenth century; led to lit streets, lights, and electric tramways
Expanding railroad network
Transportation Innovations (Late 19th Century)
Sue Canal
Built by the French in 1869 but controlled by the British by 1875; waterway that decreased travel time from Britain to India by half
Postal system (Britain first)
Communication and Education Advances (Late 19th Century)
Science and Industrialization
Synthetic clothing dyes
Alfred Nobel
Invented dynamite to blast through rock and remove hills; terrified by destructive potential of his invention and funded a prize for those promoting peace (Nobel Prize)
Pierre and Marie Curie
Studied radioactivity through the isolation of radium
Ernest Rutherford
English physicist who laid the foundation for atomic structure with the discovery of the nucleus
Max Planck
Discovered quantum theory and worked with the relationship between wave-length, frequency, and energy
Albert Einstein
The General Theory of Relativity & the connection of time/space
Friedrich Nietzsche
God is dead.
Sigmund Freud
Father of psychoanalysis - therapy during which patient is asked to recall and discuss childhood memories and traumatic experiences that have been "repressed"; believed in the analysis of dreams and the subconscious to understand h…
Medical Advances
Use of anesthesia during surgery
Louis Pasteur
Discovered that microbes (germs) cause diseases; explanation of how vaccines work
Charles Lyell
Proposed that the earth was older than the Bible claimed; used geological evidence as support
Charles Darwin
proposed the theory of evolution
Herbert Spencer
adapted Darwin's theory to human groups; Survival of the Fittest
Age of the Middle Class
Name used to describe the second half of the nineteenth century due to the decline of the nobility's power, middle class growth in wealth and population, and new luxuries for the middle class (middle c…
Thomas Cook
Organized and promoted middle class travel including day trips to the Great Exhibition of 1851
Edward Bernstein
Founder of Evolutionary Socialism or Revisionism; disagreed with Marx on the collapse of capitalism and the need for revolution; instead supported gradual and progressive improvements of working class conditions through legal methods
Karl Kautsky
Firm believer in Marx's laws who opposed the revisionists such as Berstein; however, unlike Marx, believed the proletarian revolt could occur without violence and instead through evolution
Joseph Proudhon
Father of anarchism; wanted to abolish the state because society was truly governed by natural laws and not government institutions
Papal Infallibility
Doctrine proposed by Pope Pius IX in 1870 which stated that on matters of faith, the pope could not be wrong; also published "Syllabus of Errors" which condemned liberalism as a problem of modern society
Pope Leo XIII
Published "Rerum Novarum" ("Of New Things"); supported private property and bashed socialism but also stated that Christians and the Catholic Church have a responsibility to help the poor
Catholic Social Movement
Late 19th century Catholic Church movement to help the poor
David Friedrich Strauss
Conducted historical analysis on the Bible in search of the "historical" Jesus; found that the Bible contained a series of myths which did not accurately reflect the history of Jesus; led some to question…
Prejudice against Jews
Dreyfus Affair
Public opinion is split on Dreyfus' guilt
Massive attacks on Russian Jews; used by the monarchy to redirect public anger that would have normally been thrust towards the tsar
Movement calling for the creation of a Jewish homeland where Jews would live in peace and happiness
Theodore Herzl
Advocate of zionism; wanted Jews to create international organization to create Jewish state in the Holy Land, Israel; First Zionist Congress met in 1897 in Switzerland and some Jews emigrated to Israel but still failed to create independent state
Cult of Domesticity
Used to describe the role of middle-class women during the late 19th century; women expected to keep the house clean, appear quiet, innocent, and sexually pure, and manage family's religious life
Late 19th century movement during which women fought for social rights including fair pay and suffrage (the right to vote)
British women who peacefully worked for the right to vote
Emmeline Pankhurst
British feminist who founded the Women's Social and Political Union which took radical methods of fighting for women's rights incuding breaking windows, committing arson, and heckling politicians; followers were called Suffragettes
Maria Montessori
Italian woman who was famous for her new methods of education during which children learned through play
New Woman
New Identifity for Women During the Late 19th Century:
Barthold Niebuhr
Found of the new historical method which analyzed primary source documents in the writing of classical history
Leopold von Ranke
A german historian, Tries to write history base on facts
Social Sciences in the Late 19th Century
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Wolfgang von Goethe
One of the most important Romantic writers from the Sturm and Drang (Storm and Stress - German Romantic writers popular in the French Republic during the 1770s-17802)
William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Romantic poets who ignored traditional rules of punctuation and thus rejected classical poetic form
Sir Walter Scott and Victor Hugo
Authors of "Ivanhoe" and "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" which formed the modern view of the Middle Ages in a liberal perspective
Percy Shelley
Gothic author who rejected traditional social order; view often depicted in his novels
Lord Byron
Pen-name for George Gordon; challenged political order; died while fighting rebellion agains the Ottoman Turks in Greece
George Sand
Pen-name for female author Amandine-Aurore Dupin whose work challenged society's inferior view of women and the challenges faced by women; smoked cigars, dressed as a man, and had affairs with married men
Ludwig von Beethoven
Brilliant Romantic composer who challenged tradition with unusually long and short compositions and the use of vocals; unlike earlier composers, made living solely off of compositions and performances and without patronage
Franz Schubert
Inventor of the lied/art song - solo voice singing to piano accompaniment
Hector Berlioz
Music attempted to tell a story instrumentally and without the use of singers or written words
Frederic Chopin
Music influenced by traditional folk songs and tales from his native Poland; most works piano solos and emphasize nuance and detail
Franz Liszt
Music based on gypsy culture; invented the symphonic poem and experimented with harmony
Igor Stravinsky
Composed "The Rite of Spring", which broke with tradition with its jarring music; part of ballet which included odd costumes and bizarre dancing
Eugene Delacroix
Romantic artist who painted "Liberty Leading the People" which depicts revolution in the streets of Paris during the July Revolution in France
Louis Daguerre
Pioneer in photography who accidentally discovered how to produce an image and devised process to fix the image (daguerreotype)
George Eastman
Produced flex film and box camera in the 1880s; allowed photography to be affordable and experienced by everyone
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Gustave Courbet
Realist artist who painted The Stonebreakers and A Burial at Ornans
Jean-Francois Millet
Realist painted who grew up as a peasant; painted peasants in their grim reality and did not try to portray the Romantic view that hard work leads to happiness
Honore Daumier
Cartoons emphasizing corruptino during the July Monarchy, paintings and sculptures that showed peasants worn by years of strenuous work
Charles Dickens
His novels illuminate the enormous inequities of class that existed in nineteenth-century England. While his sentimentalism sometimes verged on the Maudlin, he also had an unparalleled ability to vividly describe English reality. in depicting…
George Eliot
Pen-name for author Mary Ann Evans; "Middle March" shows the boredom and lack of satisfaction from traditional institutions including marriage
Gustave Flaubert
Madame Bovry tells a grim story of an unhappy marriage that ends in the main character's suicide
Leo Tolstoy
Russian realist-combined realism in description and character development with an atypical moralizing, which came to dominate his later work-War and Peace: monumental novel set against historical background of Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812-probed de…
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
Author of "Crime and Punishment" and "The Brothers Karamazov" - gained an interest in man's psychological and moral responsibilities after returning from exile for his participation in an illegal political group
Emile Zola
was a French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of Fr…
Edouard Manet
Post-realist artist who depicted strange subject matter (i.e. two clothed men and a naked woman in "Luncheon on the Grass"); encouraged the viewer to stop at the surface of the painting rather than looking thr…
Salon des Refuses
Exhibition of the rejected established during the reign of Napoleon III which featured artists whose works were rejected from the official Salon (an annual Paris art exhibition)
trying to show something as their impression of a subject or moment in time, often distinguished by the use of light
Claude Monet
a "plein air" (open air) artist whose painting "Impression: Sunrise," played a significant role in "giving Impressionism its name"; in 1888, he began using a different series format than before, painting the same subjec…
Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas
Impressionist painters who painted everyday scenes (i.e. couples in a dance hall) and behind the scenes of a ballet respectively
Paul Cezanne
Father of modern art who took impressionism to new extremes using abstract shapes commonly found in nature to create abstract landscapes and still lifes
Vincent Van Gogh
Impressionist/expressionist whose early dark paintings reveal a sensitivity to those suffering financially (i.e. "The Potato Eaters"); later works are landscapes using bright colors and broad brush strokes for emotional intensity
Edvard Munch
Painted "The Scream"; impressionist who revealed emotion rather than simply surface appearance
Gustave Klimt
Avantgarde painter in Vienna who shokced viewers with vibrant use of color and strange use of common images; rejected the mass society and traditional order
Pablo Picasso
Main contributor to Cubism
New Imperialism
European nations start to view Asia & Africa as a...
Cecil Rhodes
Led Great Britain's quest for overseas dominance in Africa and served as overseas governor
One of two free African countries by the beginning of WWI
One of two free African countries by the beginning of WWI; homeland for freed slaves protected by the United States
British in India
Indian Mutiny/Sepoy Rebellion encouraged England to increase centralized control; official administration replaced the British East India Company; Queen Victoria named Empress of India
Informal Empire
State does not have official political or territorial over another state but still has significant economic influence
Allied with North Korea against UN/US forces
Mimicked the western powers in imperialism; seized Korea during the Russo-Japanese War (1910)
King Leopold II
Belgian king who annexed the Belgian Congo and personally profitted off of exploitation and native slave labor; millions of Africans killed and raped; Leopold pretended to be doing humanitarian work in the Congo unti…
Berlin Conference
A meeting of European leaders held in 1884-1885 to lay down basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa. (No single European power would be able to claim continent of Africa. Participants promised to bring Christianity.)
German govt. structure
federal union of Prussia, 24 small states
Kaiser Wilhelm I
had ultimate power in Germany
Otto Von Bismarck
Former Prime minister of Prussia; builds military and decides Prussia will unite through Germany using "blood and iron"; defeats Austria and leads to Northern German states; unification of northern Germany
legislative body of Germany
German Conservatives
Prussian junkers (supported most by people)
Center Catholic Party
approved Bismarck's centralization, promoted Particularism (regional priorities)
Marxist party, advocated sweeping social change
(struggle for civilization)-attempt to limit influence of Center Party and Pope
Kaiser Wilhelm II
hated Bismarck, opposed him, and forced him to resign; opposed repression of SPD
Paris Commune
A government that briefly ruled Paris led by radicals who wanted to form their own government.
Adolph Thiers
led National Assembly
Level 157