Level 156
Level 157

Europe, 1871-1914 II


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Chamber of Deputies
part of French legislative body (National Assembly) that came to have the most power and was elected by universal male suffrage
Senate
upper house of the legislature, each state elects two
Leon Gambetta
led Republicans during the early years of the 3rd French Republic; established Parliamentary supremacy while preaching equality of opportunity
3rd French Republic
created following fight with Paris commune-led by National Assembly
Jules Ferry
French Political; Says that containment and abstinence would make France a 3rd or 4th rate power and speaks of the awareness between colonialism and national survival
Action Francaise
advocated authoritarian government with a strong military
Charles Maurras
led the Action Francaise
Boulanger Crisis
coup was plotted to overthrow French Republic; resulted in increased confidence in Republic
Georges Boulanger
plotted coup to overthrow Fr. Republic, had support of military but committed suicide after fleeing trial
Panama Scandal
failure to build Panama canal that cost France millions; led to people perceiving government as corrupt
Ferdinand de Lesseps
engineer who failed to build the Panama canal
Captain Alfred Dreyfus
falsely charged by French military of supplying secrets to Germans
Socialists
gained seats in French Chamber of Deputies
Jean Juares
led French Socialist Party
Lord Palmerston
Whig PM who was a dominant political figure in GB
Conservative Party (GB)
new Tory Party; led by Disraeli
Liberal Party (GB)
new Whig Party; led by William Gladstone
John Bright
manufacturer; anti-Corn law, contributed to development of Liberal Party
Disraeli
PM who wrote Sybil; supported reforms but wanted expansion of empire
Reform Bill of 1867
(Disraeli) "leap into dark"; appealed to working class, redistributed seats in House of Commons
Gladstone
PM who was the most important liberal leader in 19thc GB; supported Irish home rule, reforms, and opposed imperialism
Secret Ballot Act
(Gladstone) introduced civil service reform
Reform Act of 1894
(Gladstone) granted suffrage to adult males in counties as well as cities
Fabian Society
wanted to extend democracy; advanced Revisionist Marxism
Independent Labor Party (GB)
became dominant 3rd party; attracted trade unionists and socialists
Keir Hardie
Led the Independent Labor Party
Parliament Act of 1911
1911, helped pass by the George v's threat against the aristocrats. This bill prevents the house of lords from vetoing, the could veto a bill twice but the third time it would go straight to the monarch.
Representation of the People Act
(Liberal Party) granted women over 30 the right to vote, guaranteed universal male suffrage
Millicent Garrett Fawcett
GB suffragette who led the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies; was knighted
Cat and Mouse Act
freed starved prisoners on hunger strikes until they were healthy enough to be re-arrested
Emily Davison
a militant activist who fought for women's suffrage in Britain. She was jailed on nine occasions and force-fed 49 times. She is best known for stepping in front of King George V's horse Anme…
Reform Act of 1928
lowered voting age for women to 21
Irish Home Rule Act
granted Irish home rule; not accepted by Ulster
Balance of Power
An attempt to ensure that no country was a threat to another; as a result, France remained a Great Power (kept borders, kept army)
Scramble for Africa
Between 1880 and 1914 Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Italy wanted African possessions.
Three Emperors' League
1873; an alliance coordinated by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck between the three most conservative powers in Europe--Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. Each nation pledged to consult the others on matters of mutual interest and guaran…
Labour Party
A British political party that first gained prominence in 1892 with the election if its first representative to the House of Commons; represented the interests of British workers and called for the beginnings of socia…
Congress of Berlin
1878; the peace conference concluding the First Balkan Crisis, in which Russia supported the nationalist revolt of Bosnia-Herzegovina against the Ottoman Empire. Bosnia and Herzegovina were turned over to Austria-Hungary and Russia pledged to aba…
Triple Alliance
Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy during WWI
Triple Entente
Semi Formal alliance between Russia, France and Britain
Social Democratic Party
By 1914, the largest single party in the German Reichstag; represented the left of the political spectrum, held a Marxist political and economic philosophy, and adapted to cooperation within the democratic system. Socialist democrats advoc…
Afrikaners
The mostly Dutch descendant of whites who had settled in South Africa over the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries before British imperialists came. Virulently racist, with strong notions of racial superiority, they came into conflict …
Treaty of Nanking
1842; the first of the "unequal treaties" between China and the European powers that gave the west important inroads and economic dominance in China's port cities and trade. An utter humiliation to the Chinese,…
Extraterritoriality
The legal principle that exempts individuals from local law, applicable in China because of the agreements reached after China's loss in the Opium war.
James Kier Hardie
The first representative of the Labour Party in the British House of Parliament, elected in 1892, and the first real working-man to sit full time in the Commons.
Menelik II
Emperor of Ethiopia and a skillful politician; realized that his country could only defeat the European imperialists by playing them off one another, therefore, he made small concessions to each in return for weapons. T…
Boulanger Affair
1889; the attempt by General Georges Boulanger to orchestrate his election to the presidency of France and establish a military dictatorship. He skillfully manipulated the press and photo opportunities to endear himself to the agra…
First Balkan Crisis
1874-1878; Bosnia and Herzegovina rebelled against Ottoman rule, leading to Serbia declaring war on the Ottoman Empire on 30 June 1876. Russia, based on its foreign policy of pan-Slavism, declared war on the Ottoman…
Second Balkan Crisis
1885; conflict between Bulgaria and Serbia over territory; Russia warned it was ready to occupy Bulgaria if it did not yield to Serbian claims, at which point Austria-Hungary stepped in to support Bulgaria; Germany suppo…
Third Balkan Crisis
1912-1913; Italy in conflict with the Ottoman Empire over holdings around the Adriatic Sea; Serbia takes advantage of weakened Ottoman Empire to attack Bulgarian lands for her own sea port; Russia supports Serbia and Austria-Hun…
Boer War
1899-1902, Guerilla warfare is seen here which the British didn't know how to fight so they create the 1st concentration camps in response. So even though the British win, many fee like they lost t…
Opium Wars
First One 1840-1842: Lin-Tse-hsu (Chinese) try to stop the British from selling bengal opium in China -> British Win (More ports open; Treat of Nanjing)
Boxer Rebellion
Chinese revolutionaries revolt to overthrow and remove western influence from China; which took place the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901
William Siemans
introduced a better method of producing steel with a higher quality and a lower cost
Suez Canal
Idea of Cairo to Capetown railway is abandoned after the _______is opened in 1869
Marie Curie
isolated the element radium
Frederick Nietzsche
argued that is was necessary to break free from traditional morality "God is Dead"
Natural Selection
Traits that are beneficial will be passed on
The Origin of Species
Darwin's book on natural selection
The Descent of Man
Darwin argued humans were not exempt from evolution and evolved from simpler forms
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Revisionists
Bernstein's followers, argued that capitalism was not about collapse
Lenin and Rosa Luxemberg
extreme socialists that declared Kautsky's ideals heretical
anarchist
believed that the true laws of society had little to do with authority and came from the nature of society itself
syllabus of errors
listed liberalism as one of the errors of modern life
Rerum Novarum
Christians in general had a responsibility for the poor
historical Jesus
theologians searched the Bible as history terms in search of
feminists
women who criticized the civil disabilities under which they lived and tried to bring changes
Women's Social and Political Union
pursued a militant campaign of heckling political speakers, breaking church windows, and committing arson
Emmerline Pankhurst
leader of the Women;s Social and Political Union
Suffregetter
folowers of Emmeline Pankhurst
Heinrich Schliemann
a german businessman who searched for the ruins of ancient troy
Sir Arthur Evans
excavated the Minoan culture of Crete
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) French writer and Enlightenment philosopher who wrote a book called, The Social Contract, where he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the caus…
Sturm und Drang
Meaning "storm and stress." A movement in German romantic literature and philosophy that emphasized feeling and emotion.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
English romantic poet that rebelled against his b=countries conservative values
Igor Stavinsky
his music seemed to be a rejection of classical ballet
George Easterman
introduced flexible film and the 1st box camera
realists
artists that painted objects without any illusions
Eduard Manet
changed the way art was looked at, "luncheon on the grass"
impressionists
artists who took the techniques of Manet
Auguste Renoir
captured every day scenes in his works
Edgar Degas
did numerous works showing the behind the scenes world of the ballet
Eduard munch
norwegian artist, painted the Scream
breech loading rifles, steamships, telegraph
technological advantages of the new imperialism
social imperialists
viewed imperialism as a means for relieving problems such as overpopulation
contributing factors to imperialism
nationalism, religion, social darwinism, and balance of power
Mad Scramble
Europeans drew new borders in africa with no concern for tribal and cultural differences
Ethiopia and Liberia
remained independent from european control
Indian Mutiny of Sepoy Rebellion
colonial control became more centralized
treaty ports
china was forced to hand over to great britain
Indochina
Where French used both direct and indirect rule (Cambodia and Laos left where local rulers ruled but were and French advisers council them
Spanish American War
US gained control of the philippines
Russo-Japanese War
The 1904-19005 war between Russia and Japan fought over imperial influence and territory in northeast China. Japan wins and becomes the first non European world power.
King Leopals II
established a colony the size of belgium in africa
Great Gain
a struggle over the territory of afghanistan
Fashoda
in the Sudan, Great Britain and France almost went to war over
Kaiser Willhelm II
pushed Bismarck into retirement, removed him because of his lack of interest in colonization
Thomas Edison
developed the lightbulb
Max Planek
discovered quantum physics in 1901
Meritocracy
the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
Jews
religious group which faced intense discrimination and were credited with all economic problems of Europe
Book of Household Management
book by Mary Mayson Beeton, described how a woman should run the household and raise her children
Ladies National Association
1869, founded by Josephine Butler that fought against the Contagious Diseases Act
feminist
a woman who wished to bring about change in women's rights
Emmeline Pankhusrt
1858-1928, founded the Women's Social and Political Union with her daughter Christabel
Suffragettes
followers of Pankhurst who used violence to draw attention to the cause of women's right to vote
Faust
Goethe's opera which tells of a man who sells his soul to the devil to achieve worldly success
Victor Hugo
1802-1885, wrote The Hunchback of Notre Dame which influenced Gothic style of architecture
Henry Berlioz
1803-1869, wrote songs to tell a story such as in Goethe's Faust
Chopin and Liszt
two composers who were influenced by the traditional oral tales and folk songs of their homeland
Corbet and Milet
two artists who were realists and painted the life around them as it actually was
Honore Damier
1808-1879, cartoonist that lifted the curtain on corrupt politicians and legal system of the July monarchy
Hard Times
book by Charles Dickens which critiques industrialization
Fyodor Dostroyevsky
1821-1881, Russian who was interested in psychology and morale of humans
Renoir and Degas
two Impressionist painters of the late nineteenth century
Munch and Klimt
two Expressionist painters who wished to convey their deepest emotions and shock their viewers
Sepoy Rebellion
1854, resulted in centralization of colonial control
Spanish-American War
Spain vs. US and Cuba, 1898
Primrose League
pro-imperial league in Britain with several followers
great game
struggle between Russia and Britain over the worthless territory of Afghanistan
Fashoda Crisis
1898, military confrontation between Great Britain and France in the Sudan
Level 158