Level 160
Level 161

Scramble for Africa


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Malaria
Disease that hampered European efforts to colonize Africa
Boer War
1899-1902, Guerilla warfare is seen here which the British didn't know how to fight so they create the 1st concentration camps in response. So even though the British win, many fee like they lost t…
Britain
who leads the way in the world wide abolition movement?
Invention of the steam engine
Factor that made it easier for Europeans to colonize Africa
Leopold II of Belgium
Monarch who commissioned reporter Henry Stanley to obtain land in the Congo in his name
missionaries
religious men who were sent into northern Europe by the pope to teach people about Christianity
Boers
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
Shaka
A Zulu Chief who used highly disciplined warriors and good military organization to create a centralized state in South Africa
Berlin Conference
A meeting of European leaders held in 1884-1885 to lay down basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa. (No single European power would be able to claim continent of Africa. Participants promised to bring Christianity.)
Racism
Belief that one race is superior to another
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Imperialism
The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people
Governments
The main difference between European colonies and protectorates in Africa had to do with their....
Watched over and taken care of
The European colony of paternalism reflected the belief that Africans should be...
france
epicenter of the enlightenment
He managed to obtain his nation's independence
Menelik II differed from other 19-th century African leaders because...
Unnaturally imposed
The national boundaries that existed in Africa at the end of the 19-th century can be best described as....
David Livingstone
missionary from Scotland who traveled with Africans deep into central Africa to promote Christianity; was lost for several years
Henry Stanley
Hired by an american newspaper to find David Livingstone who was lost in central Africa when he was trying to promote Christianity; finds him in 1871 on Lake Tanganyika; started the famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?".
the Congo
river in Africa; Stanley headed out to track the course of it after he found Livingstone; changes rulers many times
King Leopold II
Belgian king who annexed the Belgian Congo and personally profitted off of exploitation and native slave labor; millions of Africans killed and raped; Leopold pretended to be doing humanitarian work in the Congo unti…
Charles Darwin
proposed the theory of evolution
Cecil Rhodes
Led Great Britain's quest for overseas dominance in Africa and served as overseas governor
westernize
imposing European living on Africans
Liberia and Ethiopia
only territories free from European control in 1914
Maxim Gun
was the world's first automatic machine gun; allowed Europeans to defeat Africans easily
quinine
protected Europeans from malaria (disease from mosquitoes found inland) and allowed Europeans to take over more land inland of Africa
Zulu
group of Africans who tried to control their land, but eventually fell under British control in 1887
Chief Shaka
leader of Zulu people in 1816; created a centralized state with disciplined warriors and good military organization
King Cetshwayo
succeeded Chief Shaka; refused to dismiss his army and was forced to accept British control; British invaded the Zulu nation
Battle of Ulundi
Zulus lose to British in this battle and fall under their control
boers/Afrikaners
Dutch for farmers; Africaners; settled into South Africa and created large farms
Great Trek
movement of boers north after arguing with British
Boer War (War of South Africa)
Africa was filled with people trying to find diamonds which angered the boers, who blamed the British for this; took up arms against British in 1899; used guerilla tactics while British burned farms; British win
Total war
All the resources of the nation being put forth towards the war effort.
Union of South Africa
Boer republics joined to form this self-governing union controlled by the British after the Boer war
Henry Morton Stanley
He was a Welsh reporter who was an orphan and fought in the C.W. He found Livingstone in Zambia, but Jane Gordon Bennett lied about him in England, but eventually he was all fine.
Congo Free State
African colony under Leopold's II rule. The people experienced severe abuse from Europeans.
The Suez Canal
This was enlarged and opened in 1869, and its essentially a big ditch. British wanted control of this to get a faster route to India.
Khedive Ismail (Ismail Pasha)
He was the Egyptian Khedive who wanted to reform Egypt so that it would become like France (raised there) or European country. But he needed a lot of money so he borrowed a lo…
Benjamin Disraeli
The leader if the Conservative Party
William Gladstone
The Labour (Liberal) Party's leader is
The Imperialism of Free Trade
This was a period of colonial expansion which was distinguished by pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions (Africa in the late 19th century).
Arabi Pasha
He was the nationalist Egyptian who led a revolt in 1881. He was of Turkish descent. He wanted to reform Egypt as well.
Sir Garnet Wolseley
He was an anglo-irish commander who served in the battle of Tel-el-Kebir in 1882 against Arabi. He was a great commander even at Alexandria.
Battle of Tel-el-Kebir
The Egyptians were led by Arabi Pasha and they lost terribly. British control Egypt.
Berlin West Africa Conference, 1884-1885
This was a conference that sought to regulate European colonization and trade in Africa during the new Imperialism period. Called by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck. Powers had to announce which area they were seizing in Africa.
Lord Cromer
He was a British administrator who was the controller-general in Egypt. He was from a rich family who was from Barings Bank and he was brilliant who reformed Egypt and imposed taxes, economically stable. Egypt…
Charles George Gordon
He was the "superman" in china who was first brought to Africa to subdue slavery. Did well in executing slavers that he was called back. He was sent back to suppress the Mahdi, but fa…
Muhammad Ahmed (The Mahdi)
He was believed he was the chosen one from the Quran who would rid the sinners from the Muslims. He went to a cave and came out reciting verses of the Quran and in w…
Siege of Khartoum (1884-1885)
This battle was the conquest of Egyptian held Khartoum through the lead of the Mahdi. It took time to conquer and Gordon dies here.
Horatio Herbert Kitchener
He was the general who defeated the Khalifa Abdullah in Khartoum in 1898 at the Battle of Omdurman and won because of modern weapons.
Battle of Omdurman
Kitchener defeated Khalifa Abdullah's forces in Khartoum in 1898. Kitchener takes back Khartoum.
Khalifa Abdullah
He was a Sudanese general who was a fervent believer in the Mahdi and believed that he was his successor. His inspirations to make a dictatorship failed when his army was annihilated at the Battle of Omdurman in 1898.
Marshal Marchand
He was a French officer and explorer who commanded the French expeditionary force in the Fashoda incident.
Fashoda Crisis, 1898
This was the climax of territorial disputes between Britain and France in Eastern Africa in 1898. A French under Marchand expedition up on the Nile River sought to gain control and exclude Britain form Su…
The Great Trek
This was an north east ward emigration away from British control by the Boers.
Shaka Zulu
He was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom. He was a military genius who brought a different style: dances. He used an assegai to stab and had different tactics that …
Battle of Blood River, 1838
Boers tried to negotiate with the Zulus in Natal, but Zulus were belligerent. Boers were in carriages but had the river on the left and right side, so they could pick off the Zulus with their guns.
Kimberly and Johannesburg
Kimberly: discovery of diamonds
Anglo-Zulu War, 1879: Isandlwana, Rorke's Drift
This was a conflict between the British and Zulus to eliminate Zulus from Natal because the Boers hated them, they also hated British. British tried to be good to Boers. They won the War. Isandlw…
First Boer War: Majuba Hill
The Boers were not satisfied after the the Zulu war. So they fought with British (1880-1). Majuba Hill in 1881 was the last major battle of the War won by the Boers.
British South Africa Company
This was a mining company established in South Africa founded by Cecil Rhodes and focused on the coastal regions in the east.
Jameson Raid, 1895
This was a botched raid on Paul Kruger's Transvaal Republic carried out by Leander Starr Jameson. It was intended to expatriate British workers, but it failed and it incited the Second Boer War. Kaise…
Second Boer War, 1899-1902
This was the se…
Robert Baden Powell
He successfully defended Mafeking
Christan de Wet
He was a Boer commander who was in Kiplings poem. He was one of the signatories of the Treaty of Vereeniging in 1902.
Treaty of Vereeniging, 1902
This was the peace treaty that ended the Second Boer War and ended all hostilities. British gain control of the Orange Free state.
George Goldie: Royal Niger Company
This company manufactured palm oils and lubricants. George Goldie played a major role in the founding of Nigeria.
Heligoland Treaty, 1890
This was an agreement signed signed between Germany and UK to gain control of the small island
Entente Cordiale, 1904
This was a series of agreements between UK and France, marking the start of the alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary that fought in WWI, marking almost 1000 years of intermittent conflict between the two. Fr…
Level 162