Level 161
Level 162

Imperialism in Africa


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Maxim Gun
was the world's first automatic machine gun; allowed Europeans to defeat Africans easily
Scramble for Africa
Between 1880 and 1914 Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Italy wanted African possessions.
King Leopold II
Belgian king who annexed the Belgian Congo and personally profitted off of exploitation and native slave labor; millions of Africans killed and raped; Leopold pretended to be doing humanitarian work in the Congo unti…
Berlin Conference
A meeting of European leaders held in 1884-1885 to lay down basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa. (No single European power would be able to claim continent of Africa. Participants promised to bring Christianity.)
Apartheid
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and mino…
Mandela
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
Zulu
group of Africans who tried to control their land, but eventually fell under British control in 1887
Boers
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
Congo
Area in central Africa conquered by Belgium which started the "Scramble for Africa"
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
F.W. de Klerk
Elected as the last white South African president in 1989. He legalized the African National Congress and also released Nelson Mandela from prison. This started a new era in South Africa and worked with the ANC to end apartheid
Henry Stanley
Hired by an american newspaper to find David Livingstone who was lost in central Africa when he was trying to promote Christianity; finds him in 1871 on Lake Tanganyika; started the famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?".
Force Publique
Colonial army used to maintain order in the Belgian Congo; during the early stages of King Leopold's rule, it was responsible for bullying local communities.
Bantu Migration
The movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
Khoi'san
For many centuries the Khosian people lived Southern Africa. Divided into several ethnic. The Khosian were hunter-gatherers and herders. Brought languages and tools.
Level 163