Level 165
Level 166

Imperialism & East Asian Response to Europeans


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Leopold II
1870'S - King of Belgium. Began imperial domain in Africa and was extremely harsh. At the Berlin Conference of 1885, the Congo Free State was authorized under his private rule and he promised to …
Berlin Conference
A meeting of European leaders held in 1884-1885 to lay down basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa. (No single European power would be able to claim continent of Africa. Participants promised to bring Christianity.)
Scramble for Africa
Between 1880 and 1914 Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Italy wanted African possessions.
Congo Free State
African colony under Leopold's II rule. The people experienced severe abuse from Europeans.
Maxim Machine Gun
The first automatic machine gun ever invented, which allowed easy conquest of the interior of Africa. Africans did not stand a chance against this machine gun.
Methods/approaches for Ruling Colonies
Sometimes Europeans ruled directly and other times they they manipulated native governments. For example, the French ruled more directly and used Europeans rather than natives to rule.
Role of "Natives" in Colonies
Europeans sometimes manipulated native governments. The conformists-the eventual anti-imperialist leaders-developed a desire for juan dignity. They felt that dignity was incompatible with foreign rule.
Rudyard Kipling
English writer and poet; Wrote about Anglo-Indian life and defined the "white man's burden."
White Man's Burden
The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living. Concept of Rudyard Kipling.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Role of Christianity in Imperialism
Imperialists claimed peace and stability under European control would permit the spread of Christianity. In Africa catholic and protestant missionaries competed with Islam south of the Sahara, seeking converts and building schools. Many Africans'…
Contemporary Arguments Against Imperialism
The expansion of the empire aroused critics. Ex: J.A. Hobson-radical English economist who wrote about Imperialism. Hobson and Western critics had a moral condemnation of whites imperiously ruling nonwhites. Critics charged Europeans with applyi…
World Market
World trade was a powerful stimulus to economic development in the 19th century. The increase in international commerce summed up the growth of interlocking world economy centered in Europe GB played a key rol…
Growth of Economic Inequality vs. Industrialized and Non industrialized World
From a global perspective, the significance of the IR was that it allowed those regions of the world that industrialized in the 19th century to increase their wealth and power enormously in comparison with t…
Opium War
The 1839-1842 war between the British and the Chinese over limitations of trade and the importation of Opium into China. Britain finally finds something China wants-opium. China tells Britain to stop importing opium (breaks Chi…
Taiping Rebellion
A massive rebellion by believers in the religious teachings of Hong Xuiguan, begun in 1851 and not suppressed until 1864. Hong converts groups to create "heavenly peace" and gets economic and real estate control, w…
Hong Xuiguan's Vision for People
Was compelling to suffering people but didn't always apply
Self Strengthening
After rebellions were suppressed, forward looking reformers began addressing the Western threat. A late nineteenth century movement in which the Chinese modernized their army and encouraged Western investment in factories and railways. Conservatives thought cop…
Extraterritoriality
The legal principle that exempts individuals from local law, applicable in China because of the agreements reached after China's loss in the Opium war.
Most Favored Nation
A part of a treaty guaranteeing that a nation be granted any right given to another nation. A result GB gained after China looses Opium War.
Concessions
Large areas of Chinese treaty ports that were leased in perpetuity to foreign powers. Result of Opium War.
Tributary System
A term used to describe Chinas relations with East Asian neighbors. China's neighboring countries were below China.
Canton System
A port in China that was used for trading with Europeans in the 1800's.
Meiji Restoration
The 1867 ousting of the Tokugawa Shogunate that "restored" the power of Japanese emperors. The starting point of modern Japanese gov.
Iwakura Mission
Two-year journey in which Japanese leaders traveled to the United States and to negotiate treaties. They learn about Western lifestyle. They go back to Japan and say we MUST reform our industry, military and government.
Key Reforms Japan took to "Modernize"
Japan built railroads, mines, and factories, modernized their military, wrote a constitution, imported technology, and established a house parliament. Japan had silk.
Fukuzawa Yukichi
Influential Japanese author, advocated learning Western languages and encouraged Japan to learn from west in order to keep up, his theory was "civilization and enlightenment".
Sino-Japanese War
Japan won and gained Taiwan from China and was able to make Korea a protectorate.
Russo-Japanese War
The 1904-19005 war between Russia and Japan fought over imperial influence and territory in northeast China. Japan wins and becomes the first non European world power.
Protectorates
An autonomous state or territory partly controlled and protected by a stronger outside power
Level 167