Level 167
Level 168

Balance of Power in 18th Century Europe


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Great Northern War
Broke out as Peter attacked Sweden(with assistance from Poland and Denmark) in his quest to establish a Russian trading port on the Baltic. After being routed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western m…
Poltava
A main and decisive battle in the Great Northern War. Afterwards there was a peace treaty and Russia formally became an empire.
Treaty of Nystad
ended the Battle of Poltava and marked the rise of Russia as a major European power
Leopold I
Who was the 1st king of Belgium?
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
Treaty of Passarowitz
granted Austria control of the Netherlands, Lombardy, and Naples
Peter the Great
First czar of Russia and a member of the Romanov Family. (r. 1689-1725)
poll tax
tax required before a person can vote, A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Table of Ranks
Peter the Great instituted it to create opportunities for non-nobles to serve the state and join the nobility. There were 14 levels. Each official was required to begin at level one and work his…
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, supported education for women, build schools and hospitals and museums. Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Tsar
An emperor of Russia before 1917
Charter of the Nobility
enacted by Catherine the Great, it defined the privileges of the nobility in exchange for voluntary state service
Pugachev's revolt
(1773-1775) the most significant peasant uprising of the century, took place during Catherine the Great of Russia's reign; Emelyan Pugachev- a Cossack who in his youth had been a military adventurer; disappointed in his car…
Charles VI
Established order in France by reconquering English territory and establishing regular armies. Taxes increased the government's wealth.
joseph II
(r. 1765 - 1790) son of Maria Theresa, granted religious freedom and abolished serfdom
Peter III
Husband of Catherine the Great, was mentally unstable, and was murdered by a group of Russian army officers. Whether or not Catherine was involved in the murder is unknown, but she did benefit b…
Frederick William, the Great Elector
This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
Frederick William I
King of Prussia in 1713
Frederick II (the Great)
Son of Prussian King Frederick William I and ruler of Prussia from 1740-1786. He seized Silesia from Austria, starting the War of Austrian Succession and then the Diplomatic Revolution.
Pragmatic Sanction
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
Maria Theresa
(r. 1740-1780) maintained her throne by giving Hungary Magyars prominence, reorganized army, promoted commerce and agriculture
War of the Austrian Succession
Prussian and Austria fought over Silesia and most of the rest of Europe took sides
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Kunersdorf
1758, Frederick the Great suffered the worst military defeat of his career when the Russians shattered his armies
Partitions of Poland
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in Eastern Europe
Boston Tea Party
Americans refused to buy cheaper tea because doing so would recognize Parliament's right to tax colonies, tea on ship had no buyers, Sons of Liberty boarded the ship, dumped 342 chests of tea into…
Robert Walpole
Considered the first Prime Minister of England, he followed a policy of strength through peace and trade.
Whigs
a political party that opposed James II
Tories
a political party that supported James II
George III
King of England during the American and French Revolutions
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant forc…
Declaratory Act
The American Colonies Act 1766: an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain. The declaration stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to pass laws …
Peace of Paris (1763)
Ended the Seven Year's War, France had to abandon all claim to North America; Great Britain received Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley, Spain got back the Philippine Islands and Cuba,…
William And Mary
Joint monarchs that ruled after glorious revolution under constitutional monarchy
James III
Son of James II who schemed to make himself king of England. His followers were known as Jacobites. His critics called him the Pretender, The Whigs could not tolerate his return. He led a revolt in 1715 that failed.
Level 169