Level 168
Level 169

Pursuit of Power in Europe


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absolute power
Sovereignty; complete power and rule
Divine Rights of Kings
A theory that assumed that God appointed all monarchs to rule on his behalf. Therefore, any policy, decree, plan, or approach adopted by royalty could not be questioned or disobeyed.
Bourbon dynasty
A European Royal family that is most known for its rule of France from the 16th through the 18th centuries.
Henry IV
The irst Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, also devised Edict of Nantes.
Cardinal Richelieu
Minister to Louis XIII. His two major goals were to break the power of the nobility and destroy Protestantism in France. He helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
Thirty Years' War
(1618-1648) War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia.
Gustavus Adolphus
Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles.
Louis XIV
Sun King successfully surprised discontent among the nobility and landowners through absolute monarchy and strict catholic rule. Believed in religious uniformity and helped to suppress the Jansenists
Cardinal Mazarin
Helped Louis XIV in his early reign and continued Richelieu's policy of centralization of government
Frondes
Last serious attempt to limit king's power until French Revolution. Took place when Louis XIV was a child.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Controller of general finances, helped Louis XIV consolidate France's wealth and create an economic base for funding wars
Versailles
This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress…
Louis XV
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)
Junkers
Prussian officers who were from noble Prussian families. Promoted on merit rather than wealth or social standing
Frederick William
Known as the Great Elector, this man was the first Hohenzollern leader, to move toward absolute monarchy and built a militaristic state in Prussia/ Brandenburg.
Frederick I
son of Frederick William who in 1701 became the first king of Prussia (1657-1713)
Frederick William I
King of Prussia in 1713
Frederick II
Son of Frederick William I. Became known as "Frederick the Great." He tripled the size of the Prussian state and strengthened the Prussian economy.
Hohenzollern
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
Habsburg
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain.
joseph II
(r. 1765 - 1790) son of Maria Theresa, granted religious freedom and abolished serfdom
Ivan IV
First Czar of Russia. During good Era: made many reforms, Created a council that included members from all classes, Defeated Mongols and expanded borders. During bad Era: Paranoid and strict policies lost many of…
czar
A title from the Caesars of ancient Rome that Russian rulers followed and adopted
Romanov
the Russian imperial line that ruled from 1613 to 1917
Peter I
Also known as the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of Western European models.
Catherine II
(1762-1796) Also known as "Catherine the Great." Married into the Romanov family. Had her husband murdered and became empress. Gave the impression of an "enlightened" reformer, but was still an absolutist at heart.
Great Northern War
Broke out as Peter attacked Sweden(with assistance from Poland and Denmark) in his quest to establish a Russian trading port on the Baltic. After being routed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western m…
Puritans
significant grouping of English Protestants who believed that the Church of England was corrupt and that true Christians must separate themselves from it
James I
became King of England when Elizabeth I died
Charles I
Forced unpopular levies and taxes in the English people, and stationed troops en route to war with Spain in private homes. Parliament forced him to agree to the Petition of Right. In 1629 parliament decl…
Petition of Right
A document that required the monarch to gain consent of Parliament before levying taxes or quartering soldiers in private homes
Roundheads
Parlimentary army who opposed the king during the English Civil War. Consisted largely of Puritans and Presbyterians. Comprised a majority of businessmen. Included some nobles in the south and the east. Had the suppor…
Cavaliers
Troops loyal to King Charles I during the English Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
leader of the Roundheads in the English Civil War that overthrew Charles I
Restoration of 1660
The restoration of the English monarchy by Charles ll
Habeas Corpus Act
Parliamentary measure protecting people from arbitrary arrest and unfair imprisonment. According to this, an arrested individual must be seized with a specific charge and brought before a judge.
Glorious Revolution
The bloodless accession of William and Mary to the throne of England after James II fled to England
William And Mary
Joint monarchs that ruled after glorious revolution under constitutional monarchy
English Bill of Rights
An act that reduced the powers of the monarch and increased those of Parliament
Act of Settlement
In this act Parliament established its right to grant the throne to whomever it wished.
cabinet government
a group of advisors to the English king who met to discuss matters of state
Balance of Power
An attempt to ensure that no country was a threat to another; as a result, France remained a Great Power (kept borders, kept army)
Grand Alliance
The name given to alliance between USSR, USA and Britain in World War II
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
Pragmatic Sanction
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
Maria Theresa
(r. 1740-1780) maintained her throne by giving Hungary Magyars prominence, reorganized army, promoted commerce and agriculture
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
This was the treaty that ended the War of Austrian Succession by giving the Prussians land, taking land away from Maria Theresa, but still allowing her to rule
Diplomatic Revolution
the time of changing alliances between the war of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, France allied with Austria and Russia, while Prussia is allied with Great Britain
Seven Years' War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant forc…
William Pitt
(1708-1778), Prime Minister of Great Britain 1766-1768; often known as _______ the Elder
Treaty of Paris (1763)
ended the Seven Years' War/French and Indian War
Level 170