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Level 17

European History: Overview


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berlin wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Soviet Union and United States
two most powerful countries in the world after WWII
Superpowers
the nickname for the two most powerful countries in the world after WWII
WWII
fighting that started because of the rise of the Nazi party in Germany and ended with the atomic bombings in Japan
Cold War
Series of events between U.S. and USSR where they compete for global dominance without directly fighting each other (capitalism vs. Communism)
Hitler
became Chancellor of Germany in 1933
Nazi
Problems caused by the Great Depression made German people more likely to believe promises made by this political party
1914
the year that WWI started
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty ending World War I
Reparations
Payments for war damage.
Soviet Union
country in control of East Germany during the Cold War
the assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Single event said to have started WWI
1919
A prominent political leader and women's activist Alexandra Kollontai, established the women's department within the Communist Party to encourage female involvement however, the vision of transforming women's role in society was not met and…
1914-1918
the years that WWI was fought
Atomic bombings of Japan in 1945
the starting point of the Cold War
1492
the year Columbus discovered the Americas
1948
When did Israel become a state
1929
14% of students entering higher technical education had to be woman
1989
the year people were allowed to cross from East to West Berlin
1991
the year the Cold War ended and Soviet Union began to dissolve
Colonialism
Some thought to promote Christianity or build a better world with a moral purpose (Henry Curzon -" the empire was the greatest instrument for good that the world has ever seen") and Cecil Rhodes…
Imperialism
The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
1939-1945
the years WWII was fought
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese navigator that opened a sea route to Asia around Africa in 1498.
The language that an area speaks
an easy way to determine which European country once colonized an area
Portugal
the European empire that colonized modern-day Brazil
The "Big Four" European Empires
France, England/UK, Spain and Portugal
God, Gold, and Glory
The 3 G's of Exploration
Spain
European empire that colonized most of Latin America
Britain/UK/England
European empire that colonized what is now the United States
Exploration
the act of exploring or investigating unknown regions
Colonization
to form a colony; settle
Nazism
principles or methods of Nazis
collapse
to fall apart or cave in
Russian Revolution
uprising in Russia that took place in 1917 in which Lenin took control and the royal family was executed
German Reunification
The breaking down of the Berlin Wall that separated citizens from East Berlin to West Berlin
Holocaust
the mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi camps during WWII
circumnavigate
to sail around the world
Axis Powers
Japan, Italy, and Germany in World War II.
Ideology
What did, in Hitlers eyes, take a front seat to economic development (evident in his support of the smallholder farms)?
1917
Women formed 10% of Party membership and in 1928 they made up 12.8%
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan for achieving a quick victory in the West at the outbreak of World War I by invading France through Belgium and Luxembourg.
White Russians
Those Russians who opposed the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War of 1918-1921.
Fourteen Points
The list of Wilson's demands for Germany.
Mandates
The assigning of the former German colonies and Turkish territories in the Middle East to Britain, France, Japan, Belgium, Australia, and South Africa as de facto colonies under the vague supervision of the Leagu…
League of Nations
Created by Wilson. Essentially a world government. There's an assembly, council, an international court of justice and a secretariat (leader). The USA is the first country to turn it down. Created a notion of international cooperation.
Great Depression
The economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s.
Weimar Republic
The German democratic regime that existed between the end of World War I and Hitler's coming to power in 1933.
Sinn Fein
a political party set up by Arthur Griffith in 1905 that sought full independence for Ireland
Popular Front
A government of all left-wing parties that took power in France in 1936 to enact social and economic reforms.
War Communism
The economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War to seize the banks, heavy industry, railroads and grain.
New Economic Policy
A limited revival of capitalism, especially in light industry and agriculture, introduced by Lenin in 1921 to repair the damage inflicted on the Russian economy by the Civil War and War Communism.
Collectivization
The bedrock of Stalinist agriculture, which forced Russian peasants to give up their private farms and work as members of collectives, large agricultural units controlled by the state.
Great Purges
The imprisonment and execution of millions of Soviet citizens by Stalin between 1934 and 1939.
fascism
A form of government in which individual freedoms are denied and complete power is given to the government.
Duce
Meaning "leader." Mussolini's title as head of the Fascist Party.
Nazis
The German Nationalist Socialist Party.
SA (Sturm Abteilung)
The Nazi parliamentary forces, or storm troopers.
Mein Kampf
Hitlers book that he wrote in prison in which he lays out his plan to take control of Germany, no one took it seriously when in retrospect they really should have.
Fuhrer
Meaning "leader." The title taken by Hitler when he became dictator of Germany.
SS (Schutzstaffel)
The chief security units of the Nazi state.
Kristallnacht
Night of the Broken Glass --German mobs and the state police throughout destroyed Jewish property, burned synagogues, and terrorized Jews on November 9, 1938.
Lebensraum
was an important component of Nazi ideology in Germany. The Nazis supported territorial expansionism to gain Lebensraum as being a law of nature for all healthy and vigorous peoples of superior races to displace pe…
Axis
GERMANY, ITALY, JAPAN
Appeasement
Giving in to prevent war.
Anschluss
1938, Germany absorbs Austria through this policy
Blitzkrieg
Lighting war -- a typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces to take control of Poland and other European countries in 1939.
Luftwaffe
German Air Force
Third Reich
The Third Republic of Germany which began with Hitler's rule in 1933 and ended with his defeat in 1945
Decolonization
1947-1962 The collapse of colonial empires. practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence. Inspired by self determination and weakness of Western Nations
Containment
Containment foreign policy towards communism is containment
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a free market based economy and society. Liberalize Communism in Russia. Fixed agricultural deficit. 1985-86.
Glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union. Personal freedom- unbans media.
Kulaks
Essentially the landed gentry, wealthy private farmers who didn't want to give up their land, they were purged by Stalin
Bund
A secular Jewish socialist organization of Polish Jews.
Americanization
Refers to economic and military influence of the United States on Western Europe, but also as well to cultural loss of Europe. Reflects an extension of American values on European nations.
Green Movement
A political environmentalist movement that began in West Germany in the 1970s and spread to a number of other Western nations.
ENIAC
The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. The first genuine modern digital computer, developed in the 1940s.
European Union
an organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
Euro
The common currency created by the EEC in the late 1990s.
tabula rasa
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
philosophes
social critics in france
Deism
the belief that God had established natural laws in creating the universe, but the role of divine intervention in human affairs was minimal, believed in rationalism and trusted human reason to solve many problem…
Physiocrats
18th century French thinkers who attacked the mercantilist regulation of the economy, advocated a limited economic role for government, and believed that all economic production depended on sound agriculture.
laissez-faire
Idea that the government shouldn't play an active role in regulating the economy.
Third Estate
Bourgeoisies, middle class, peasants
Cahiers de doléances
Meaning "lists of grievances." Petitions for reforms submitted to the French Crown when the Estates General met in 1789.
Assignats
Government bonds based on the value of confiscated Church lands issued during the early French Revolution.
Emigrés
French arisocrats who fled France during the Revolution.
Jacobins
French political club that was represented in the National Assembly. Most popular club during the revolution. Wanted to execute the king, a powerful centralized government.
Convention
French radical legislative body from 1792 to 1794.
sans-culottes
Those who do not wear fancy pants. A rather radical part of the French Revolution.
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Levée en masse
The French Revolutionary conscription (1792) of all males into the army and the harnessing of the economy for war production.
Thermidorian Reaction
The reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution that began in July 1794. Associated with the end of terror and establishment of the Directory.
Consulate
French government dominated by Napoleon from 1799 to 1804.
romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Sturm und Drang
Meaning "storm and stress." A movement in German romantic literature and philosophy that emphasized feeling and emotion.
Categorical Imperative
According to Emmanuel Kant, the internal sense of moral duty or aweareness possessed by all human beings.
Methodism
An English religious movement begun by John Wesley that stressed inward, heartfelt religion and the possbility of attaining Christian perfection in this life.
Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis
G.W.F. Hegel's concept of how ideas develop. The thesis is a dominant set of ideas. It is challenged by a set of conflicting ideas, the antithesis. From the clash of these ideas, a new pat…
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