Level 172
Level 173

Lenin & the Bolsheviks

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Who was Lenin?
raised middle class, went to law school and became interest in Marxist socialism.
What were the main ideas of Lenin
HE believed that only violent revolution could destroy capitalism
Did Lenin's ideas have any impact?
Lenin's version of Marxism not only had a major impact on events in Russia, but also changes the way revolutionaries undertook radical revolt around the world
Did all Marxist agree with him
No. Other Russian Marxists challenged him. While he called for a small, disciplined, elite party his opponents wanted a more democratic party with mass membership
How did Lenin view the war
It was an imperialist war and provided an opportunity for revolution
When did Lenin return to Russia from exile
After the February 1917 Revolution the German government provided Lenin, his wife and 20 colleagues with safe passage across Germany into Russia (Lenin was in exile)
What happened when Lenin returned to Russia
Lenin and the Bolsheviks attempt to seize power in July was a failure. He was branded a German agent. In July, he was forced to flee to Finland,.
What political problems helped the Bolsheviks
Right wing General Kornilov attempted to overthrow Provisional government after he had secret planning with Kerensky the prime minister. The threat of right wing counter revolutionary popularized the Bolsheviks.
Who were the Petrograd Soviets
Russia established the Petrograd Soviets in March 1917 after the February Revolution as the representative body of the city's workers.
Who was Trotsky
Trotsky convinced the Petrograd Soviets to form a special military-revolutionary committee and make him their leader.
What was the Congress of Soviets and what did they do
The Congress of Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies (June 16 - July 7, 1917) was convened by the National Conference of the Soviets.
What did the Bolsheviks gain at the end of the civil war
They had retaken much of the land that was ceded to Germany. Their only losses were to Poland
main aim Nick II
maintenance of Tsarist authority
foreign policy aims Nick II (4)
Pan Slavism, Reopening of the Straights of Dardanelles to Russian shipments, gaining of warm water port, alliance with Germany
domestic aim Nick II
industrialization/modernization Russia without revolution
Repression local govt (3)
Duma representation strongly limited, Mir control of peasantry maintained/ reinforced, Zemstva limited power and maintenance of Land Captains
Why was Nick II opposed to reforms
experience from father's action saw as potential of encouraging revolutionary ideals
India, Tibet, Iran
3 countries in Russia's sights for foreign expansion under Nick II
Repression tool established
Repression of population (3)
execution and arrests Okhrana, suppression of protests by army, Progrom attacks v Jewish citizens
Control of Youth under NII
implemented reforms under AIII in education continued
split of Social Democrats
3Oppositionist parties to NIi
Socialist Revolutionaries, Social Democrats, Liberals
abolishing of Tsarism
Aims of Socialist Revolutionaries
Peasantry, promised land collectivization
main group appeal of Soc. Revs and why
urban workers
the working class, poorly paid, very little food (similar to peasants); also known as the sansculottes
Not until _______ is Dreyfus pardoned by the French
7 causes of 1905 Revolitions
NII failure to reform, lack of representation, Repression, Spread Socialism, Russo-Japanese War, easing political censorship, Bloody Sunday
Bloody Sunday
27 protesters were shot and 14 of these killed by British troops in the Bogside area of Londonderry, Northern Ireland.
Duma's dominated by nobility and limitations of Zemstva
What caused a lack of representation within the Russian govt?
'Liberation' 1902
Opposition Journal set up v NII regime and when
Russo- Japanese War
urban result of Russo-Jap War
increasing radicalization of workers, due to shortages brought about by War
How is censorship eased (3)
extension press freedoms, restrictions on Zemstva lifted, allowing of newspapers and public meetings to satisfy demands of the people
What are the results of an easing of censorship under NII? (3)
spreading of Socialist newspapers, spreading of demands for Constitutional Govt, Socialists stir up increasing resistance to state
Numbers involved in Bloody Sunday
resolution of 1905 Revolutions (2)
Army returns from Russo-Jap War, October Manifesto
October Manifesto effect
assuages liberals, thus dividing opposition, and delays any further revolutionary action
December 1905
When does the Army return to end the 1905 Revolutions?
Fundamental Laws, Repression, Stolypin
3 Consequences of 1905 Revolutions
Post 1905 repression death toll Moscow
Repression St Petersburg post 1905
entire St Petersburg Soviet arrested and imprisoned
What did the Fundamental Laws do?
reassertion of Tsarist authority, and establishment of 'real laws of land'
domestic oppression areas prior to revolution
progroms, Okrahna, Protests, Education, Censorship, local government
The February Revolution
18th February - 4th March 1917
Tsar Nicolas II
goes to the front lone and leaves wife to run nation. Problems- female, German, sick son.
Empress Alexandra
falls for Rasputin's mystic charm and said ability to heal son
Grigori Rasputin
says he can fix her son, They begin to fall under his influence as he worms his way into the government. Causes the prestige to crumble. Legendary murder.
Rasputin Murder
December 16, 1916. A group of nobles led by Prince Felix Yusupov.
February riots
1917. strikes and demonstrations break out in Petrograd in response to war wariness, food and fuel shortages, runaway inflation, and generalized distrust of the government.
Nicholas II's abdication
March 15, 1917. voluntarily after not being able to suppress demonstrations. Provisional government is put in place and promises reform.
Joined the Russian Social Democratic Party, became a revolutionary when his brother was executed. Founded the Iskra (spark), Wrote What is to be Done in 1903, ends up taking power in Russia after the revolution
October Revolution date
November 6-7 1917
October Revolution
The Red Guards (armed force organized by Petrograd Soviet ((council)) on Lenin's order seize Petrograd. Lenin announces new regime in Russia- The Council of People's Commissars
The Civil War happenings
Bolsheviks (communists)= red army vs anti-communist forces=white army. Ekaterinburg. Murder of the Royal family. Red victory 1992.
Murder of the Royal Family
July 1918. White forces are making advances toward Ekaterinburg where the Royal family is being held. Lenin doesn't want the Whites to people able to rally behind royal family to win over public so he has the Royals murdered.
War Communism
The economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War to seize the banks, heavy industry, railroads and grain.
War Communism happenings
Private trade prohibited. Food requisitioned from the peasantry to feed the cities. Agriculture and industrial production declined heavily. Transportation and communication systems collapsed. Cities experience food and fuel shortages.
New Economic Policy
A limited revival of capitalism, especially in light industry and agriculture, introduced by Lenin in 1921 to repair the damage inflicted on the Russian economy by the Civil War and War Communism.
Stalin vs. Trotsky
Trotsky- commissar of war.
Stalin's Alliance with Left Bolsheviks
Grigori Zinoviev= leader of the Communist Party In Leningrad.
Stalins success with first alliance
Trotsky forced to step down as commissar of war (1925)
Stalin's alliance with Right Bolsheviks 1926
Nikolai Bukharin=editor of Communist Party newspaper
Stalin's success with second alliance
Isolate Zinoviev and Kamenev and exiles them from the communist party.
Stalinist Policies
Stalin adopted the program of the Left Bolsheviks. 1st in a Series of Five Year Plans (1928), The Great Purge, Mass arrests/trials/executions,
1st Five Year Plan
1928-1932. Sought to end New Economic Policy, eliminate capitalism, create socialist economy, promote the rapid development of heavy industry, collectivize agriculture
Collectivization of Agriculture
Gov turns private farms into large state run farmers that owners now have to work on. intense resistance from farmers so governments seize food, leaving the peasants who resist (kulaks) to starve. 5 …
The Great Purge
1936-1938. Mass public arrest of Communist Leaders, mass public trials of prominent old Bolsheviks, and executions. All convicted and most all executed. Secretly purged Communist Military.
Labor Camps
10 million people once great purge subsides. Less prominent people end up here while others are executed.
Party Rank-and-File
1937. Secret trial and execution of 8 generals. WWII breaks out in 1939 and leaves Russia behind because Stalin purged their military and generals.
Level 174