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Czar Nicholas II
Nicholas II ruled from 1 November 1894 until his enforced abdication on 2 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.
Strikes & food riots around capital
Explain the situation in Russia around March 1917
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudal…
What are "soviets"
Councils elected by workers/soldiers/sailors who wanted to represent all workers/peasants of russia (later the Bolsheviks took control of the soviets through promising improvements).
What happened to the Tsar?
He was arrested, as were his men. The aristocracy pedestal of society slowly disintegrated. (Some escaped Russia, many executed)
Liberal Provisional Government
The de facto gov't for 8mo's following the takeover in March 1917. The members were mostly liberals at first. Some moderate socialists would join in July. They attempted to rule but struggled to hold cont…
A liberal/wealthy man who was the initial leader of the Provisional government. (Replaced by Kerensky later)
After the February Revolution Kerensky served as Minister of Justice in the democratic Russian Provisional Government. In May he became Minister of War. In July he became the second Prime Minister until it was overth…
it terminated long lasting imperial rule of tsars!
Main sig of this "pre-oct revolution" in March 1917 was imp. because ...
Who were the Bolsheviks?
The revolutionary party committed to the ideas of Karl Marx -- lead and roused by Leon Trotsky and Lenin. This radical wing of the Social Democratic Party was later renamed to communist party
Concerning standard of life and living conditions in 1917 Russia 'Lenin" ...
Thought they were like a pitri dish for revolution (bad conditions lead to questioning of system)
How the transfer from Liberal Provisional Govt to Bolshevik went down...
LPG avoided action while econ was bad for many. Remaining in WWI + not assisting poor with reforms = bad. They were overthrown by the Bolsheviks in November 1917.
Workers Protest in Petrograd
July 1917 - Gov troops fire at protesters. The shooting angered citizens further.
Liberalism and Russian tradition (vs France or GB)
Unlike F or GB liberalism wasn't rooted in Russian tradition: small middle class, more adverse circumstances, pressure of participation in WWI
Joined the Russian Social Democratic Party, became a revolutionary when his brother was executed. Founded the Iskra (spark), Wrote What is to be Done in 1903, ends up taking power in Russia after the revolution
What did Trosky do in October 1917?
He organized the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd by the Red Army. He started/organized/led the force.
Peace, Land and Freedom
What did Lenin promise the peasants?
Was in exile abroad, came back with change in policy: called for end to cooperation with the Provisional Government, and "All Power to the Soviets". No more teamwork?
Initial popularity of Bolsheviks
low! ... urban soviets' supported them, but the social revolutionary power was pretty unpopular. An election was coming up, so promises to peasants were made and Lenin reorganized the parliament to his advantage.
Council of People's Commissars
Soviets across territory of Russia headed by Lenin - they governed the state
Results of Bolshevik Rev
Beginning of Communism forged (western powers grow weary, western intervention,) communism anti capitalist senti…
He was in charge of the Military Revolutionary Committee of the party & did most planning to the November Revolution. At All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Nov he announced that the Bolsheviks had taken o…
What exactly happened in the Oct rev? (Day of)
The bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace and arrested the Provisional Gov't. The sailors helped the Blosheviks with their warships that directed guns on the palace.
New Economic Policy
A limited revival of capitalism, especially in light industry and agriculture, introduced by Lenin in 1921 to repair the damage inflicted on the Russian economy by the Civil War and War Communism.
Where was the Provisional Gov't meeting?
Russian Civil War
A result: The fight between the Bolsheviks ( aka Red Army) and their opponents (aka White Army). The Bolsheviks won - 15 million Russians died - economy was in ruins - trade/labor problems
WWI involvement + Bolshevik Takeover
Following the revolution the Bolsheviks withdrew from the conflict. Germany further wished to advance on Russia, so the b's appeased with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, an agreement b/n russia and the axis power.
How many parts did the Russian Rev have?
Two: the initial February revolution which resulted in the provisional government, and the OCTOBER REVOLUTION which began Bolshevik and later communist power.
Government leaders, not citizens, control industry and wealth.
a Russian political newspaper associated with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. The newspaper was started by the Russian Revolutionaries during the pre-World War I days and emerged as a leading newspaper of…
12th March 1917
Stalin and Kamenev arrive in Petrograd- urge accomodationism with prov gov and immediate peace treaty
3rd April 1917
Lenin returned to Petrograd
4th April 1917
Lenin issues his April Thesis
3rd-6th July 1917
Failure of the July days
8th July 1917
Kerensky became prime minister
General Kornilov advances on Petrograd
1st Sep 1917
Kornilov abandones advance on Petrograd and is arrested
25th Sep 1917
Bolsheviks gain a majority in the Petrograd Soviet
9th Oct 1917
Military Revolutionary Committee set up with trotsky part of the troika
Mid Oct 1917
Kamanev and Zinoviev condemn an attempt at a coup
7th-10th Oct 1917
Lenin returns to Petrograd to convince the central committee to attempt insurrection- succeeds
23rd Oct 1917
Kerensky's premptive attack- closes down pravda
24th-25th Oct 1917
MRC armed and ready, Bolsheviks seal off key communications/railways in petrograd
25th-26th Oct 1917
Kerensky fled, Bolsheviks seize winter palace
26th Oct 1917
Lenin established Sovnarkom in the name of the soviet
order no 1
2nd march 1917