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Abortion was allowed on demand
The New Family Code
What was the New Family Code?
Consolidated earlier changes made to social policy women were given free contraception advice, abortion was legalised, marriages were performed as brief civil ceremonies in registry offices and divorce became easier
Political effects of the New Family Code
Mass political activity, known as the Khudzhun, was initiated to mobilise women against traditional values
Education under the New Family Code
Education was provided equally for both men and women allowing women with the opportunity to become doctors and engineers, roles traditionally held by men
Working under the New Family Code
State nurseries, workplace crèches and canteens were provided to enable mothers to work outside of the home
The Great Retreat
What was the Great Retreat?
Due to decreasing birth rates and the threat of war, Stalin re-emphasised the 'traditional' family in order to increase the Russian population
What did the Great Retreat include?
Made divorce more difficult, raising the fees for each divorce, restricted abortion to those who required it for medical reasons and encouraged larger families by providing tax exemptions to families with larger numbers of children
14% of students entering higher technical education had to be woman
one third of all engineers and 79% of doctors were women
Women in politics
Gender equality was not encouraged within the party and mainly young, unmarried women were involved as they weren't 'burdened' with domestic responsibilities
Women formed 10% of Party membership and in 1928 they made up 12.8%
A prominent political leader and women's activist Alexandra Kollontai, established the women's department within the Communist Party to encourage female involvement however, the vision of transforming women's role in society was not met and…
Working under Stalin
Women in the workforce were paid less and considered inferior and less skilled. 32% of female workers were over the age of 30 and 38% under the age of 22 as women tended to l…
Women in the workforce stats
1933 they made up 33% of the workforce which increased to 43% by 1940.
Wendy Goldman (It broadened...)
It broadened both state and male responsibility for the family but in exchange it demanded that woman assume the double burden of work and motherhood.
Robert Overy (were regarded...)
were regarded as an integral element in the construction of the new community.
Hosking (women were entering...)
whilst "women were entering the industrial workforce in ever greater numbers, this was not generating the emancipation hoped for, since pay, specifically that of women, dropped sharply during the first five-year plan."
Helen Rappaport (a triple...)
a triple role of wife, mother and worker.