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Level 18

European History: Overview II


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Age of Exploration
a historical period of European global exploration that started in the early 15th century with the first Portuguese discoveries in the Atlantic archipelagos and Africa, as well as the discovery of America by Spai…
Exploration
the act of exploring or investigating unknown regions
Colonialism
Some thought to promote Christianity or build a better world with a moral purpose (Henry Curzon -" the empire was the greatest instrument for good that the world has ever seen") and Cecil Rhodes…
World War One (WWI)
a war between "the allies" (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the "Central Powers" (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
Russian Revolution
uprising in Russia that took place in 1917 in which Lenin took control and the royal family was executed
Rise of Nazism
Hitler and the Nazi Party rose to power due to the social and political circumstances that characterized the interwar (between WWI and WWII) period in Germany. Many Germans could not concede their country's defea…
Holocaust
the mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi camps during WWII
World War 2 (WWII)
A war fought from 1939 to 1945, in which Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, the United States, China, and other allies defeated Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Cold War
Series of events between U.S. and USSR where they compete for global dominance without directly fighting each other (capitalism vs. Communism)
Militarism
Glorification of the military.
Imperialism
The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
world wide depression
the economic crisis and period of low business activity in the U.S. and other countries, roughly beginning with the stock-market crash in October, 1929, and continuing through most of the 1930s.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty ending World War I
Axis Powers
Japan, Italy, and Germany in World War II.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese navigator that opened a sea route to Asia around Africa in 1498.
Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed from Spain in 1515
Archduke Ferdinand
archduke of Austria and heir apparent to Francis Joseph I; his assassination at Sarajevo triggered the outbreak of World War I 1863-1914
Czar Nicholas II
Nicholas II ruled from 1 November 1894 until his enforced abdication on 2 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.
Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Germany
communism
Government leaders, not citizens, control industry and wealth.
Capitalism
An economic system that allows for individual choice, where the government does not interfere with business.
democracy
A political system where people are able to decide who their leader will be.
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
berlin wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
reunification
The joining back together of East Germany and West Germany after the fall of soviet communism in 1989. There is now just one Germany.
Judaism
the religion developed among the ancient Hebrews that stresses belief in God and faithfulness to the laws of the Torah
Catholicism
adherence to (following) the forms of Christian doctrine and practice which are generally regarded as Catholic rather than Protestant or Eastern Orthodox.
Islam
the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
Superpowers
the nickname for the two most powerful countries in the world after WWII
alliance
When two people or countries decide that they will be friends and will defend each other.
Black Death
The bubonic plague that killed millions of Europeans in the 14th century.
Estates General
legislative body consisting of representatives from all three Estates
Jacquerie
Revolt of the French Peasantry.
Plenitude of Power
The teaching that the Popes have power over all other bishops of the Church.
Curia
The papal government.
Hussites
Followers of John Huss (d. 1415) who questioned Catholic teachings about the Eucharist.
Lollards
Followers of John Wycliffe (d. 1384) who questioned the supremacy and privilges of the Pope and the Church hierarchy.
Great Schism
The appearance of two, and at times three, rival popes between 1378 and 1415.
Conciliar Theory
The argument that General Councils were superior in authority to the Pope and represented the whole body of the faithful.
Renaissance
The revival of ancient learning and the supplanting of traditional religious beliefs by new secular and scientific values that began in Italy in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Condottieri
Military brokers who furnished mercenary forces to the Italian states during the Renaissance.
Humanism
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages, Renaissance.
Studia humanitatis
During the Renaissance a liberal arts program of study that embraced grammar, rehetoric, poetry, history, philosophy, and politics.
Civic Humanism
Education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life.
Chiaroscuro
The use of shading to enhance naturalness in painting and drawing.
Mannerism
A style of art in the mid-to late-sixteenth century that permitted the artist to express his or her own "manner" or feelings in contrast to the symmetry and simplicity of the art of the High Renaissance.
Golden Bull
The agreement in 1356 to establish a seven-member electoral college of German princes to choose the Holy Roman Emperor.
Conquistadores
A conqueror, esp. one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Encomienda
in the US, a land grant system started in 1503 which gave certain Spaniards an estate or tract of land in America as well as the Native American inhabitants of that land
Reformation
The 16th century religious movement that sought to reform the Roman Catholic Church and led to the establishment of Protestantism.
Vernacular
The everyday language spoken by the people as opposed to Latin.
Augsburg Confession
Codification in 1530 of Luther's doctrines as established since time of Diet of Worms and subsequent confinement at Wartburg, 1521-22. Included priesthood of all believers, two sacraments, authority of the bible, justification by faith al…
Act of Supremacy
The declaration by Parliament in 1534 that Henry VIII, not the Pope, was the head of the Church of England.
Level 19