Level 186
Level 187

World War I


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Serbia
country seeking independence from Austria, supported by Russia
Archduke Frans Ferdinand
the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, wife is Sophia, visited Sarajevo, both assassinated (June 1914)
Propaganda
The spreading of ideas to support the war effort or damage the opposing cause.
trench warfare
Battles of World War I
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 po…
no-man's land
the area between opposing trenches, which could strech miles and was often very dangerous
gas masks
provided protection from chlorine gas
trench
ditches where soldiers could have some protection
airplanes
this was the first war for these to appear, innovations are added as the war goes on, hold bombs and machine guns for attack
armistice
a truce or agreement to end fighting, as in the holiday (November 11, 1911)
Central Powers
Name for Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey in World War I
Allied Powers
The US, UK, France and Soviet Union(at the end) who fought together during World War II.
Uboat
German submarine
Lusitania
The British liner that was torpedoed by a German submarine. Brought about the threatening of America cutting off diplomatic relations with Germany. This brought America into the war because many innocent American civilians died that were on the liner.
Zimmermann
German diplomat, who asked Mexico to attack the U.S. if the U.S. and Germany went to war, message sent by telegram, messege interceded by Great Britain
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty ending World War I
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
Militarism
Glorification of the military.
nuetral
taking no side in a conflict
Imperialism
The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people
alliance
When two people or countries decide that they will be friends and will defend each other.
Liege
First "official" battle of World War I. Violated the right of Belgian neutrality.
Tannenberg
Germany's first attempt to invade Russia. This proved to be the most spectacular and complete victory (for Germany) of the entire war.
Marne
Battle that was fought to save Paris. Effects included bringing the war to a halt, creating a stalemate and war of attrition, exposed the VSP to the Allies and stablished the system of trench warfare.
Masurian Lakes
Germany vs. Russia - Round II. Same outcome.
Gallipoli
Allied naval offensive against Ottoman land forces. The execution ended up being inept and way too overly cautious. Labeled as a "failed offensive."
Verdun
German plan to "bleed the French army." Resulted in near 1,000,000 casualties.
Jutland
Only major naval battle of the war that resulted in the German navy never again leaving port after this.
Somme
As only the British and French could say, ever-so-politely, the goal here was to "drain the German forces of reserves."
Unrestricted submarine warfare
Begun in February 1917, this meant that the Germans would sink any/all Allied ships in the waters of war.
Bolsheviks
A Russian political party (group) that started the Soviet Union.
Russia
Which colossal country had nine different time zones, was practically landlocked, and had a ruler with many problems in the 1900's?
Brest-Litovsk
This treaty effectively ended the war between Russia and the Central Powers. Russia lost approximately 1/3 of her land on her eastern border.
Chateau-Thierry
First part of a two-battle German offensive near the end of the war. This was one of the first major battles in which the U.S. troops played a decisive role.
Belleau-Wood
Second part of the German offensive at the end of the war. Second major battle where the U.S. troops first played a decisive role.
Marne - 2
As a result of this battle, no further large-scale German offensives would be launched. The end was in sight. Paris was AGAIN saved.
United States
Who tries to find solutions to help Latin America with its problems
alliance system
A formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense
Zimmerman Note
A note, sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
1914
the year that WWI started
1916
year that President Wilson is reelected, campaigning on the fact that he kept the US out of the war
1917
Women formed 10% of Party membership and in 1928 they made up 12.8%
pacifist
one who is against war or the use of violence; (adj.) opposing war or violence
socialist
A believer in national ownership and operation of principal industries and services on a nonprofit basis.
conscientious objector
Person who refuses to enter the military or bear arms due to moral or religious reasons
Great Migration
(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Two laws enacted to impose harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S participation in WW1
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
Fourteen Points
The list of Wilson's demands for Germany.
League of Nations
Created by Wilson. Essentially a world government. There's an assembly, council, an international court of justice and a secretariat (leader). The USA is the first country to turn it down. Created a notion of international cooperation.
Reparations
Payments for war damage.
war-guilt clause
term of the Treaty of Versailles forcing Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI
Neutrality
A policy of supporting neither side in a war.
Triple Alliance
Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy during WWI
Triple Entente
Semi Formal alliance between Russia, France and Britain
Conscription
The Draft, a list of the young men that are ready to be enlisted in the army.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, wife is Sophia, visited Sarajevo, both assassinated (June 28th, 1914)
Bosnia
Country where Sarajevo is located
Gavrilo Princip
19 year-old Bosnian Serbian terrorists, who assassinated Ferdinand and his wife Sofia
Kaiser William II
Emperor of Germany who sent a "blank check" to say he would support Austria-Hungary if war broke out
Czar Nicholas II
Nicholas II ruled from 1 November 1894 until his enforced abdication on 2 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.
mobilization
the process of assembling troops and supplies for war
Schlieffen Plan
Germany's plan for achieving a quick victory in the West at the outbreak of World War I by invading France through Belgium and Luxembourg.
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
David Lloyd George
A radical populist, famous for sleeping around the upper classes. Worked with Churchill in the early 1900s and pushed for reforms including the Age pension act and 8 hour work days. Eventually would become prime minister
Georges Clemenceau
Leader of France during World War I.
Alsace Lorraine
Area on the northeast border of France, taken by Germany in 1871, returned to France in the Treaty of Versailles.
Rhineland
Western section of Germany that was remilitarized by Hitler.
Stalemate
A deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other.
World War I
the Allied Powers (US, Great Britain, France, Italy, Russia) vs. Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary), 1914-1918
Reasons U.S. Entered WWI
USA broke its' policy of isolationism and entered WWI to fight along with the Allied Powers for several reasons:
propaganda posters
encouraged patriotism during the war
Uncle Sam Posters
persuaded young men to join the army
trenches
soldiers dug these to protect themselves from machine gun fire; could go hundreds of miles; were often cold, muddy, rat infested and gave no protection from poison gas
war gardens
people started growing these to provide food for their families during WWI
factories
place where women went to work during WWI and took over jobs that men had done
war bonds
a way people at home could help with the war; people bought these which gave the government money to pay for the war; the government promised to repay people after the war
In Flander's Fields
poem that encouraged soldiers to keep fighting and win the war so the dead could rest in peace knowing they had fought for a purpose
National Labor Review Board
settled disputes between workers and company owners
assembly line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
hated Bismarck, opposed him, and forced him to resign; opposed repression of SPD
Balkans
Powder Keg of Europe. Strong sense of nationalism within region.
Western Front
In WWI, the region of Northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other.
Eastern Front
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Total war
All the resources of the nation being put forth towards the war effort.
Self determination
the right of people to choose their own form of government
The Black Hand
A Serbian terrorist/nationalist organization dedicated to the creation of a united Balkan state. Responsible for the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, which started WWI.
The Triple Entente
The pre-WWI alliance of France, Great Britain, and Russia. During the war this group was referred to as "The Allies".
The Triple Alliance
The pre-WWI alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. During the war, Italy left the alliance, the Ottoman Empire joined it, and it was known as "The Central Powers".
Casualties
Includes dead, wounded, missing or captured. 1 out of 7 soldiers died from battle wounds. About 622,000 soldiers died from disease, not battle.
Tsar Nicholas II
The last monarch of Russia. Before and during the beginning of WWI he ruled Russia. Cousin of German leader Wilhelm II and British King George. He was executed along with the rest of his fa…
Austrian Ultimatum
Issued to Serbia by Austria after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand that included extreme demands which they could not accept. Austria declared war on Serbia on July 28 when Serbia refused to accept all of its demands.
Sarajevo
Capital city of Bosnia and the city in which Franz Ferdinand was assassinated.
civilians
Non-fighters during a war; regular people who are not soldiers and are not armed and taking part in fighting the war.
Otto Von Bismark
Provokes Austrians
Balance of Power
An attempt to ensure that no country was a threat to another; as a result, France remained a Great Power (kept borders, kept army)
Europe's Powder Keg
The region of Southeastern Europe known as the Balkans, it is home to many different ethnic and religious groups. Once part of the Ottoman Empire, many groups wanted independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire too, lea…
Armenian Massacre
An act of genocide by the rulers of Ottoman Turkey during WWI against Christian Armenians, in which a half million Armenians died.
Gallipoli Campaign
England and France's 1915 attempt to take over the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) during WWI by taking control first of this peninsula. The Allies (England & France) failed and Turks were successful in keeping contro…
The Balkans
Present day territory that includes Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, Bosnia, and Serbia. Revolutions sparked by nationalism began here: Greece (1821), WWI (1914)
Battle of the Somme
This four month long battle was between combined Bri…
Level 188