Level 18
Level 19

Rise of Europe


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Land in a woman's dowry
Led to fierce negotiations before marriage in a noble society
serf
a peasant bound to the land
charter
a document granting special privileges from the English monarch; each describes general terms the relationship that was suppose to exist between the colony and the crown
troubadour
a wandering musician
Truce of God
Required Christians to stop fighting between Friday and Sunday each week
obedience, poverty, chastity
What monks and nuns under Benedictine Rule took vows to
crushed a rebellion in Rome
Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne to be Emperor of the Romans because
fief
an estate granted to a vassal by his lord
Chivalry
code of conduct for knights
journeyman
a salaried worker in the guild system
knight
a mounted warrior
Vikings
The group that attacked from Western Europe and destroyed the last threads of Charlemagne's empire in the late 700s
Military service
part of a vassal's obligation to a lord in the feudal system
owned by the lord landowner for life
Serfs on a manor in the feudal system
Taller houses and shops
Built as a response to overcrowding of the medieval cities
legumes
The crop that restored fertility to the field in a three-field system of crop rotation
papal supremacy
authority over all secular rulers
Clovis
the Frankish leader who conquered the former Roman province of Gaul and converted to Christianity
Merchants
part of the "new middle class" of medieval society
Treaty of Verdun - 843 A.D.
Charlemagne's empire was split into three regions
missi dominici
Followers of Charlemagne sent out throughout his empire to administer the law
St. Francis of Assisi
the founder of the first order of friars
achieve salvation
Medieval Christians believed one must receive the holy sacraments
apprentice
a trainee in the guild system
overcrowded cities
led many peasants to settle in the fields outside the city walls
liege lord
to whom a vassal owed his loyalty
Feudalism
a governing process that allowed medieval societies to protect themselves
city charter system
A commercial practice adopted from Muslim culture with whom most of Europe conducted trade
Friars
Different from monks, they traveled and preached the Gospel
Beguines
Allowed poor women who had been rejected by other Christian groups to become nuns
Pope Gregory VII
Set reforms that resulted in only the church being allowed to appoint bishops
Nuns in the late Middle Ages
The church withdrew many of the rights they had early enjoyed from this group
Reforms
What the church needed to return to Christian principles rather than placing a priority on secular concerns as the church leaders were tempted by wealth and power
Mutual obligations
serfs and peasants were linked to the land they lived on, but that lord was a vassal to a liege lord who also might be a vassal to a king. Each had responsibilities to the leader above.
High clergy
nobles who owned their own land who were usually well educated and often relatives of secular rulers
Level 20