Level 196
Level 197

League of Nations Agencies


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The secretariat
Kept records of League meetings/ prepared reports for the different agencies
The Assembly (secretariat section)
Every country had a representative to the Assembly/ recommend action to the Council/ vote on: admitting new member, appointing temporary members, budget, other ideas/ decision had to be unanimous
The Council (secretariat section)
Included permanent members and temporary members/ to sort disputes: moral condemnation, economic and financial sanctions, and military force
Permanent members of the Council
In 1920: Britain, France, Italy and Japan (had veto)
Temporary members of the Council
Elected by the Assembly for three year periods
Moral condemnation
Decide which country was the aggressor
Economic and financial sanctions
Members of the League could refuse to trade with the aggressor
Military force
The armed forces of the member countries and could be used against the aggressor
The permanent court of international justice (secretariat section)
Based in the Netherlands/ gave legal advice to the Assembly or Council- no way of making sure they followed them
The international labour organisation (ILO)
Successful in banning poisonous white lead from paint/ limited work hours for children- only some adopted it due to the raise of industrial costs
The Health Committee
Worked hard to defeat leprosy/ reduced malaria and yellow fever in the later decades/ USSR took advice on preventing the plague in Siberia
The refugees committee
400,000 prisoners of war returned to their homeland in the first year after war
The slavery commissions
Freeing of 200,000 slaves in the British owned Sierra Leone/ challenged forced labour
The mandates commission
Colonies taken away from Germany and Turkey was handed over the the League of Nations/ made sure the territories was used for benefit and not ruling of people
Who was represented in the Assembly?
All member states- meetings were held twice a year
Who was represented in the Council?
Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan had permanent seats (as did Germany from 1926 and the USSR from 1934). Non-permanent members were elected for a term of three years
What did the Secretariat do?
It was the Civil Service of the League
What was the Permanent Court of International Justice?
Based in the Hague, had Judges elected by the Assembly who interpreted International Law.
What were the weaknesses in the League's structure?
1. The Council and the Assembly had to take its decisions unanimously.
What disputes did the League successfully resolve?
1. The Aland Islands dispute, 1920-21. Both Finland and Sweden claimed these islands. The League arbitrated, giving them to Finland
What were the League's most important agencies and commissions?
1. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) worked for social and economic justice. Its membership included some non-League states as well.
What were the League's major failings?
1. Vilna, 1920- Poland seized land belonging to Lithuania. But Britain and France wanted to keep Poland as an ally against Germany and the USSR, and discouraged the League from acting.
14 million
How many Americans were unemployed by 1933?
How did the Wall Street Crash spread worldwide?
1. Americans couldn't afford to buy their exports, so they cut back their production and sacked their workers.
How was The Depression to blame for Nationalism in Japan?
1. The depression wrecked the Japanese economy, which relied on exports to countries like the USA, e.g. silk prices fell by 50%. By 1931 half of Japan's factories were idle, and unemployment and poverty…
How did the Depression bring about the rise of the Nazis?
Germany had borrowed heavily from the Americans to pay reparations to the allies. Unemployment reached 6 million, which the Nazis successfully exploited to come to power.
How did the Depression affect the League in well established democracies?
The depression increased support for political extremists. In France this lead to political instability. It made these countries very reluctant to get involved in expensive overseas wars. They cut back spending on armaments, and ref…
What did the Japanese do in September 1931 as an excuse to invade Manchuria?
They blew up a section of Japanese-owned railway near Mukden and blamed it on Chinese saboteurs
Why did Japan annex Manchuria in 1932?
1. Manchuria was rich in coal, iron ore, bauxite and timber. It also had plenty of living space for Japanese settlers.
Manchukuo, Henry Pu-Yi
In 1932 what state was created, and who was the puppet ruler?
Why was China's appeal to the League unsuccessful?
Japan held a seat on The Council, and used it to block action
Why was collective security unsuccessful in the case of Manchuria?
1. A military operation would have been unpopular. European nations were unwilling to send their troops to die, and the cost would have been huge
Near the Marco Polo Bridge
Where did a fight break out in 1937?
When this conflict broke out into a full scale war, what happened?
The Japanese took Beijing, bombed Shanghai, and massacred 300,000 civilians at Nanjing.The Chinese appealed to the League, which again did nothing.
The Chinese government had fled West to Beijing
How were the Japanese able to capture most of Eastern China by 1938?
1945
When did the Japan-China conflict end?
1922
USSR formed, Stalin = General Secretary of the party
1935
The Great Retreat
What were Italy's intentions for doing so?
1. Avenge the humiliation of 1896, when Italy had first tried to establish a colony in Africa, only to be beaten by the natives at the Battle of Adowa.
What happened in 1936?
He had occupied the capital, Addis Ababa
Haile Selassie
Who was the Abyssinian Emperor?
They imposed economic sanctions
What was the League's reaction to Italy's blatant violation of the Covenant?
What was the effect of the Abyssinian crisis?
1. Undermine the credibility of the League of Nations. Sanctions had been ineffective and the key powers in the League had betrayed it. None would trust "collective security" any more. Italy left the League in 1937.
To what extent was the League a success?
The League had a number of minor successes in the 1920's, and its Agencies and Commissions did valuable work. However, it failed to achieve disarmament and to prevent war when challenged by powerful nations, not…
Name the ways the League enforce decisions
Moral condemnations, economic sanctions and military force
Disarmament
What word beginning with D was a main aim of the League?
Assembly - it met once a year in Geneva
Which section of the League comprised of a representative of every member country?
Which section of the League comprised of a 5 permanent and 4 temporary members?
The council: The League council met up to 3 times a year and in times of emergency. The 5 permanent members were the major powers; Britain, France, Italy, Japan and (from 1926) Germany. The perma…
What was the central ideal of the League?
The League was built around the idea of collective security. This meant that all members of the League could prevent war by acting together to protect and defend the interests of nations.
What was the ILO?
The International Labour Organisation. The aim of the ILO was to improve the conditions of working conditions throughout the world. It was made up of employers, governments and worker's representations who met once a year.
WHO
The World Health Organisation attempted to deal with the problem of dangerous diseases, e.g. leprosy
What did the League do to help POWs and refugees?
The Refugee Organisation helped to return people to their original homes at the end of the First World War - Fridtjof Nansen, a Norwegian was particularly helpful here and over half a million POWs were helped
Which two countries were involved in a dispute over the Aaland Islands in 1921?
Sweden and Finland. The Aaland Islands had belonged to Finland but Sweden disputed ownership. Most islanders were Swedish. The L of N said that the islands should remain part of Finland and this was acce…
What happened when Germany and Poland wanted Upper Silesia?
The League divided the region according to a plebiscite. 700, 000 voted to join Germany and 500, 000 voted to become part of Poland. The L of N partitioned the area so one-third to Po…
What did the League do when Mussolini invaded Corfu and how did he respond?
Some Italian soldiers employed to mark out the border between Albania and Greece were murdered by bandits from Greece. The Italian Leader, Mussolini, demanded 50 million lire in compensation. Greece asked the L …
Vilna
This city had once been the capital of Lithuania but most people were Polish. When Lithuania became independent in 1919 it claimed Vilna. A Polish army seized the city. The L of N protested…
Memel
This was a German port on the border with Lithuania. Having seen what happened to Vilna, Lithuania decided to seize Memel. The L of N did not remove them.
Greece and Bulgaria
During a border dispute some Greek soldiers were killed. Greece invaded Bulgaria. The L of N ordered Greece to withdraw and pay compensation and it agreed.
Isolationism
US policy during WWI along with neutrality
1921 - 22 Washington Conference
Between November 1921 and February 1922 the USA organised a conference to discuss naval disarmament and tension in the Pacific and the Far East. Two treaties were signed that limited navies.
1922 Rapallo Treaty
Aim: Co-operation between Germany and Russia. They agreed to establish friendly relations, to denounce reparations, to co-operate economically, on secret military co-operation. Germany was able to build planes, tanks and develop gas and train personnel
1925 Locarno Pact
The aim was to make Europe a safer place. This was signed in many countries including Britain, France, Germany, Belgium and Italy. Many believed the spirit of Locarno promised an end to the feeling…
1928 Kellogg Briand Pact
The aim was to renounce the use of warfare. It was signed by over 40 nations who agreed not to use warfare to settle disputes. It was a show of goodwill but there wa…
What were the problems with Britain and France being in charge of the League?
Both countries had suffered terribly during the war. Their economies and armed forces were badly weakened. This meant that they were usually unwilling to intervene in conflicts when this might cost them money or …
The League had to uphold the Peace Treaties but how did this come to weaken it?
The problem was that as time went on, the treaties came under more and more criticism. Many people began to think that they were too harsh.
How did the Depression affect the League?
There was less international co-operation, Britain and France no longer wanted to sort out disputes that would cost them money and affect their trade and economic hardship meant that some countries turned to fascist, militaristic governments
What was the social and economic impact of the Depression?
The volume of international trade fell, tariffs were imposed and there was huge unemployment and hardship
Level 198