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How many British soldiers were killed during WWI?
What were the financial implications of WWI for Britain?
Inflation doubled, the national debt multiplied by 10, they had to increase taxation and borrow from other countries (especially America)
A land fit for heroes
What did David Lloyd George promise?
Why was Britain in a depressed state after WWI?
The decline of Britain's staple industries, the development of industry in other parts of the world, the decline of British trade, American competition and British wage costs
What were Britain's staple industries?
Coal, iron, steel, shipbuilding and cotton
What happened to Britain's staple industries after WWI?
They went into decline. There was a surplus of ships after the war and America and Japan had begun to produce their own. The industries fell behind in design and construction technology and they …
What were the particularly depressed areas?
Clydeside, Tyneside, Lancashire, South Wales and Jarrow
What were the characteristics of the depressed areas?
High unemployment, low labour participation by women, high infant mortality and other social problems
What areas prospered and why?
The greater London area and the midlands because they were centres of newer industries such as motor cars, electricity and consumer goods
What was the government's initial economic policy?
They wanted to balance the budget so they did not invest in industry. They fixed the value of the sterling to the gold standard, by doing this they hoped to control inflation as it f…
How many Rwandans were killed in the genocide of 1994?
Over 2 million
How many had lost their jobs by June 1921?
What was the National Insurance Act?
It extended unemployment benefit to most workers
What were the flaws with the National Insurance Act?
It only provided 15 shillings a week for men and 12 for women, far too little. It could only be collected 15 weeks in a year as it was aimed a short term unemployment…
What was the impact of WWI on British Trade Unions?
They were in a stronger position to resist wage cuts because they were much bigger
What caused the General Strike of 1926?
Mine owners wanted wage cuts and longer hours and workers wanted nationalisation, higher wages and shorter hours
What was the Samuel Commission?
The commission created by the government to enquire into the coal industry
They agreed to pay a subsidy to keep miners wages constant
What did the government agree to do while the Samuel Commission was in progress?
What did the Samuel Commission recommend?
The mines be modernised, wages be cut and hours be made longer
What workers took part in the General Strike?
1 million railway, printing, gas, transport and electricity workers as well as 1 million miners
How long did the General Strike last?
How did the government counter the General Strike?
They set up the Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies which distributed food, food convoys were protected by soldiers, volunteers drove cars, lorries, buses and trains
What was the publics reaction to the general strike?
They were sympathetic to the miners but resented the country being held to ransom for their cause
Why did the TUC end the strike?
The government promised there would be no victimisation of workers
What were the effects of the general strike?
Membership of the TUC fell by 2 million, the government passed the Trade Disputes Act which outlawed general strikes, trade unions could no longer use members dues to support the Labour party, the spiri…
How did the Wall Street Crash impact Britain?
Production was cut, unemployment rose to 1/5 of the workforce - mostly in the older industries
What was the governments action against the Great Depression?
They took Britain off the Gold Standard, they cut unemployment by 10% and introduced a means test for it, wages of soldiers and civil servants were cut, the bank interest rate was lowered so people could take out loans
What was the Import Duties Act?
It put a tariff tax on imports and ended Britain's free trade policy in favour of protectionism
What was the Special Areas Act?
The government proposed to give help to special areas to encourage the building of factories but less than 15,000 jobs were created
Why was Britain better off than Germany?
It's unemployment was half what it was in Germany, the banks survived the depression, it imported a lot of its food so those that had jobs were better off as they got a better stan…
How was unemployment benefit perceived by the public?
It was seen as a charity, not a right
occurs when people 16 years and older are out of work and are ACTIVELY seeking work.
In 1936 what percentage of the population had been unemployed for over a year?
In 1936 what percentage of the population were living below the poverty line?
Why were the hunger marches organised?
To highlight long-term unemployment in depressed areas
Who organised the hunger marches?
The National Unemployed Workers Movement
It was dominated by communists
Why did the TUC shun the NUWM?
How what percentage of the people had jobs in Britain during the Great Depression?
The welfare state
What was created in Britain after WWII to prevent this kind of economic suffering from happening again?