Level 204
Level 205

Spanish Civil War


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February 1936
Popular Front wins the National Elections. Azana becomes Prime Minister of Spain
March 1936
Right wing Falange party is banned.
July 1936
Government bans the regular army. Franco takes command of the army in Morocco. Hitler agrees to help the Nationalist cause and Stalin moves to help the Republic side.
August 1936
First International Brigade volunteers arrived in Spain.
February 1937
Nationalists started a major offensive against Madrid. International Brigade played an important part in resisting this offensive.
March 1937
Battle of Guadalajara. Italian "volunteers" defeated. This led to Franco abandoning any attempt to take Madrid.
April 1937
Guernica destroyed by aerial bombing.
April 1939
Spanish civil war is over, Republicans surrender unconditionally to Franco
April 1938
Republican Spain split in two by the Nationalists.
October 1938
International Brigade leaves Spain
Carlism
Carlism, 'Carlismo' , a Spanish political movement of traditionalist character. Can be defined as an extreme form of autocratic monarchism based on Catholic values. Originating in the 1820s and was a significant force in Spa…
Guardia Civil
Set up in 1844 as a consequence of the civil war. A paramilitary police who had to keep the labourers in place. The guardia civil had to maintain the maintained the order locally while…
Anarchism
Anarchism:
Caciquismo
It is a political system, which is based on the local bosses possessing power, the alternating governments of Conservatives and Liberals pursued almost the same policies. As a class, local chiefs or bosses (caciques) …
The Condor League
The German air force under German command which supported the Nationalists from November 1936 onwards. Beginning with 100 aircraft and ending with 12.000 German pilots and personnel. Notorious for the bombing of Guernica April …
Cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico.
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Latifundia
Feudal type of landownership of large private estates owned by rich families and absentee landlords; worked by landless labourers.
The Catholic Church
Largest Christian Church and among the oldest religious institutions in the world. The issue regarding the Catholic Church divided the country. The church in the Second Spanish Republic was wealthy, powerful and conservative (par…
The Nonintervention Committee
(1936-1939) Most (European) countries followed the principle of non-intervention. Non-intervention agreement signed in August 1936.
CNT
Name: Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour)
FNTT
National Federation of Land Workers
CEDA
The Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups. Political party during the 2nd Spanish Republic in 1933, dissolved in 1937 . It was a Catholic conservative force and defined itself by 'affirmation and defence of…
The Falange
Founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera ( Dictator Primo de Rivera's son) in 1933.
Accidentalist
The moderates in the right-wing (pragmatists). Believed that means to improve Spain could be taken within the framework of the current system.
Catastrophist
The radicals in the right-wing (revolutionaries, Carlists) Catastrophists believed that the problems with the Republic ran deep. This led them to conclude it should be overthrown, and replaced with another system.
PSOE
Spanish Socialist Worker's Party.
UGT
The UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores, general union of workers) is a major Spanish, socialist trade union, connected to the PSOE.
POUM
The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification. Formed during the second republic (1935). Anti-Stalinist Communists, Trotskyists. Fights against the PCE during the spring 1937 civil war within the civil war in Catalonia.
PNV
Basque Nationalist party established in 1895 by Sabino Arana (also known as the EAJ-PNV meaning Basque Party of the Supporters of God and Old Laws); Carlist; was the reaction against industrialism and Spanish immigration. …
PCE
Spanish Communist party, 1921. Moscow -oriented, follows Comintern strategy duing the Spanish Civil War, i.e. aims at winning the civil war before making a revolution. Dominates the Republican governments from summer 1937 onwards.
IR / The Left Republicans
Spanish left-wing republican party led by Manuel Azaña. Was founded in 1934 following the left's defeat in the 1933 election. Established by the merger of Manuel Azaña's Republican Action party and Santiago Casares Quiroga's O…
Radical Republican Party
Split from the Republican Union.Ideologies:Social Liberalism,Radicalism,Anti-clericalism,Republicanism.Political Position: Centre - right.. Participated in the provisional government which followed the overthrow of the monarchy in 1931. Corrupt leader Alejandro Lerroux turns to the right during the 1933-36 right wing government.
JONS
small organization, primarly based amongst students in Madrid and workers and peasants in and around Valladolid. JONS was engaged in trade union work in Castile. By July 1933 it had set up 175 trade un…
Moviemento Nacional
National Movement, created in April 1937. Unites the politically diverse factions of the Nationalists into one movement composed of corporativist organizations which gathered employers and workers, in opposition to Marxism's class warfare; All civil serv…
Requetes
Carlist militia since the Carlist Wars in the 19th Century, khaki and red beret uniform. New recruitment during the 2nd Republic, Support the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War; mostly came from Navarre; a g…
Manuel Azana
Left- wing Republican. Prime Minister 1931-1933 and February to May 1936. President 1936-1939.
General Mola
A Spanish Nationalist commander. Known as "the director" during the Spanish Civil War as he was head-planner of strategics and tactics. His aim was a strong disciplined state. He's also the one who created…
1892 - 1975
Francisco Franco Before Spanish Civil War
(1869-1946)
Largo Caballero
Juan Negrin
in office: 17.05.1937-01.04.1939; Spanish politician; a leader of the PSOE, centralist; finance minister from September 1936; prime minister of Spain; collaborated with the Communists; belonged to the Indalecio Prieto, left-wing extremists; helped many pe…
General Miaja
A commander of the Madrid military district (the Republican). In November 1936, he was named commander of the Junta de Defensa (Defence Council), made up of all parties to the Popular Front, and to de…
La Passionaria
Dolores Ibarruri, A communist leader: writes passionate article and speeches: inspired many spanish people and people all over the world to fight for the Republic. Famous with: " No Pasaran!" (They(Fascism) shall not pass!"…
Germany: Condor legion
Foreign aid to the Nationalists
Level 206