Level 221
Level 222

Holocaust & Pearl Harbor


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Arbeit Macht Frei"
is a German phrase that can be translated as "work will make you free," "work liberates"
synagogue
The building where sy Jewish assembly or congregation meets for religious observance and instruction
Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Germany
Ghettos
A confined area of a city in which Jews could be controlled and segregated from general population until they were sent to concentration camps.
Dr.Joseph Goebbels
1897-1945- Nazi propaganda leader during the Third Reich
Heinrich Himmler
was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler later appointed him Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army…
The Third reich
Adolf Hitlers agressive New German Empire
The Final Solution
Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European jews during World War II.
Selection
an assortment of things from which a choice can be made
Judenrat
jewish council formed by Germans as a way to issue orders to Jews and administer Jewish affairs
The Nuremberg Laws
took citizenship away from Jewish Germans
SS
The elite, ultra-loyal, bodyguards for Hitler
Propaganda
The spreading of ideas to support the war effort or damage the opposing cause.
yad vashem
The largest Holocaust Memorial museum- located in Israel
liberation
the act of liberating someone or something
dachau
a concentration camp for Jews dac created by the Nazis near Munich in southern Germany
pogrom
organized persecution of an ethnic group (especially Jews)
Concentration Camps
prison camps established by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party for Jews and other political prisoners during the war.
ration
a limit on certain items during wartime such as sugar and gasoline in order to preserve these items for the troops
persecution
the abuse of a person or group because of their beliefs or appearance
Anti-semitism
Prejudice against Jews
Aryan
The Master, Nordic race
Allies
ally=friend Allies= US, UK, France, and Soviet Union
Sobibor
This camp in eastern Poland was one of the largest extermination camps run by the Nazis. Operating for only just over a year, about 900,000 were murdered, most of them Jews. The camp was destr…
sonderkommando
Jews who were in charge of the disposal of bodies
Auschwitz
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there, 1940-1945, designed by Heinrich Himmler for the "Final Solution" of the Jews.
Blitzkrieg
Lighting war -- a typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces to take control of Poland and other European countries in 1939.
cattle cars
Frieght cars that were used to transport Jews
collective responsibility
the doctrine that all cabinet members must agree with all decisions
crematorium
a furnace where a corpse can be burned and reduced to ashes
deportation
the act of expelling a person from their native land
extermination
The complete destruction of a group of people.
Holocaust
the mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi camps during WWII
Kristallnacht
Night of the Broken Glass --German mobs and the state police throughout destroyed Jewish property, burned synagogues, and terrorized Jews on November 9, 1938.
Nazi
Problems caused by the Great Depression made German people more likely to believe promises made by this political party
Nuremberg Laws
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
reich
German legislative body
SA
Nazi militia created by Hitler in 1921 that helped him to power but was eclipsed by the SS after 1943
swastika
the official emblem of the Nazi Party and the Third Reich twisted sign
babi yar
Ravine in Ukraine where tens of thousands of Jews were babi slaughtered by advancing German troups
kapo
brutal Jewish prisoners who controlled concentration campo inmates for the Germans in exchange for special treatment
chelmno
First death camp
death march
As Nazis tried to destroy evidence of camps, prisoners were often forced to walk long distances
Eugenics
A new "science" subject brought in to Nazi Schools to teach the benefits of selective breeding and creating the master race.
euthanasia
the act of killing someone painlessly (especially someone suffering from an incurable illness)
Final solution
Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish community in German held territories
genocide
attempting to eliminate an entire group of people
Gestapo
The state secret police
Wannsee Conference
A January 1942 conference during which Nazi officials decided to implement the "final solution" to the "Jewish question"—a euphemism for the extermination of European Jews and other minorities at concentration camps in eastern Europe.
zyklon b
gas used to kill jews in gas chambers
theresienstadt (terezin)
camp used as propaganda to show the Red Cross everything was fine
dr.josef mengele
a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. He gained notoriety chiefly for being one of the SS physicians who supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining…
righteous among the nations
Non-jewish people who helped jews during the Holocaust.
kindertransports
rescue efforts of Jewish children to Great Britain from Nazi Germany
Oskar Schindler
German factory owner who built factories with all Jewish workers, had a change of heart and said that they could not be taken away because he needed them for work and thus saved 1,000 Jewish lives.
Nuremberg trials
(1945) A series of court proceedings held in Germany after World War II in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity. Many were convicted and received the death penalty.
birkenau
A segment of Auschwitz where prisoners were housed and the camp was located
cabbala
Jewish philosophy based on mystical interpretation of the scriptures
gypsy
a member of a nomadic people originating in northern India and now living on all continents
hasidism
beliefs and practices of a sect of Orthodox Jews
kaddish
jewish prayer for the dead
muselman
a Nazi concentration camp prisoner suffering from extreme stages of starvation
passover
(Judaism) a Jewish festival (traditionally 8 days) celebrating the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt
rosh hashana
Jewish new year
yom
Hebrew word used for "day" typically written for describing a 24 hour period
kippur
It is known as the Day of Atonement, and is a sacred and holy day for the Jews where they pray to ask for their forgiveness.
pipel
a young boy in the service of a kapo in the concentrarion camps
Zionism
Movement calling for the creation of a Jewish homeland where Jews would live in peace and happiness
zohar
the most important books of Kabbalah
Battle Of Okinawa
The last large-scale battle in the Pacific theater, in which U.S. forces invaded the Japanese home island of Okinawa. The battle was very bloody, killing at least 100,000 Japanese soldiers and 80,000 to 100,000 Japanese civilians.
Hiroshima Maidens
a group of women who were young when they were seriously disfigured as a result of the atomic bomb
gaijin
foreigner (from Japanese)
hibakusha
Japanese word meaning "explosion- affected"; means shell shocked. Used to describe survivors of Hiroshima/Nagasaki. The pervasive threat of annihilation
lucky dragon
radioactive ash from testing of Bravo fell on 23 Japanese fishers aboard this boat
col. paul tibbets
Pilot of the "Enola Gay", the first aircraft to drop an atomic bomb in the history of warfare
isoroku yamamoto
Japanese admiral who planned the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 (1884-1943)
a-bomb dome
Only Building Left Standing After The Americans Dropped A Nuclear Bomb In Japan.
japenese honofics
uses a broad array of honorific suffixes for addressing or referring to people... san
Pearl Harbor
military base settled by US in Hawaii
bushido
the way of the warrior
Enola Gay
the name of the American B-29 bomber, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, Jr., that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
Manhattan Project
The secret US project during World War II that made the first atomic bomb.
alamogordo test
In the desert near Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945 experts tested and detonated their first atomic device
tokyo air raid
Bomber dropped nearly a half-million bombs over Tokyo. It destroyed 16 square miles of the city
Bataan Death March
Sick and malnourished American soldiers were forced to march 55 miles, put on a train that took them inland and forced to march 8 more miles to prison camps. Their Japanese captors showed no m…
Executive Order 9066
signed on February 19, 1942 by President Roosevelt, authorized the Secretary of War to establish military war zones, and remove "any or all persons" from the zones. ~Abby, Sydney
war relocation authority
agency for rounding up more than 100,000 Japanese Americans living on the West Coast and interning them in camps located in the western mountains and the desert. The Japanese Americans were forced to abandon t…
manzanar
Japanese internment camps in California
sadako and the thousand cranes
This story, published in 1977 by Eleanor Coer, told the true story of Sadako Sasaki, a young girl who lived in Hiroshima in 1945 when the United States dropped the atomic bomb.
tokio rose
was a generic name given by Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II to any of approximately a dozen English-speaking female broadcasters of Japanese propaganda.
Hideki Tojo
(1884-1948) Active in the Japanese army, he became the minister of war, and, later, Japanese prime minister in October 1941. With his aggressive foreign policy, he ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec…
Iwo Jima
American Marines landed on this island and captured it after a month of the most bitter fighting of the war.
battle of saipan
This was a decisive battle in the Pacific war. Using the newly developed b-29 bombers, Tokyo was within bombing range of Saipan, so when the island was taken, it was all downhill for the Japanese, and they knew it.
capt. robert lewis
(October 18, 1917 - June 18, 1983) was a United States Army Air Forces Officer serving in the Pacific Theatre during World War II.
abstinence
act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite
incessant
occurring so frequently as to seem ceaseless or uninterrupted
panorama
a picture (or series of pictures) representing a continuous scene
apathetic
showing little or no emotion or animation
bizarre
Extremely strange, unusual, atypical
moribund
on the point of death
verdancy
lush greenness of flourishing vergetation
crux
the most important point
xenophobic
suffering from xenophobia
hillock
a small natural hill, the most important point
immolate
offer as a sacrifice by killing or by giving up to destruction
capricious
determined by chance or impulse or whim rather capri than by necessity or reason
talisman
a trinket or piece of jewelry thought to be a protection against evil
automaton
a mechanism that can move automatically
atavism
a reappearance of an earlier characteristic
miasma
an unwholesome atmosphere
parsonage
an official residence provided by a church for its parson or vicar or rector
conflagration
a very intense and uncontrolled fire
catechist
one who instructs catechumens in preparation for baptism
breviary
(Roman Catholic Church) a book of prayers to be recited daily certain priests and members of religious orders
prefecture
the office of prefect
sampan
small boats used in China and Japan
hedonistic
devoted to pleasure
diathermy
a method of physical therapy that involves generating local heat in body tissues by high-frequency electromagnetic currents
convivial
occupied with or fond of the pleasures of good company
wasserman test
test for syphillis
retched
to make an effort to vomit
sloughed
to get rid or throw off
suppurate
cause to ripen and discharge pus
rendezvous
a meeting planned at a certain time and place
incendiary
a bomb that incen is designed to start fires
debris
the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up
repugnant
offensive to the mind
Four Freedoms
speech given by FDR in 1941 in which he stated the world should be made safe for the freedom of speech, worship, from want, and from fear
lend-lease bill
House Bill 1776
Op. Barbarossa
June 22, 1941
Russia = ally
US lend-lease extended to Russia
June 1941
US occupy Iceland base for lend-lease supply
J threatens Indochina
J needs foreign oil...
Vietnam=French Indochina
J occupies Vietnam
July 1941
US ultimatum 1941
Prince Kanoye
moderate. negotiations! (Nomora)
Joseph Grew
US Japanese diplomat
Admiral Nomora
J American diplomat
July-Sept 1941
Konoye's time to achieve diplomatic solution.... no
Cordell Hull
TN congressman. FDR's advisor. Secretary of State.
Hideki "the Razor" Tojo
Tojo gov't=start Oct 1941.
General Isoruku Yamamoto
scheme to invade Pearl Harbor and Midway. create plan.
December 7, 1941
what was the date Pearl Harbor was attacked
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British PM Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WW II and to work for peace after the war
HMS Prince of Wales
victory vs. G battleship, Bismark (summer '41)
January 1942.
Declaration of the UN
Quasi-war in Atlantic
Sept-Nov 1941. US vs. G
October 30, 1941
USS Reuben James sunk
USS Reuben James
October 30, 1941. 110 killed. 44 survive.
Magic
US war code to decrypt the J diplomatic code (the Purple code)
Purple
J diplomatic code
Admiral Husband Kimmel
Commander-in-chief of US Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC)
General Walter Short
Commander responsible for the defense of U.S. military installations in Hawaii
Chief of Staff
General George C Marshall
Henry Stimson
Secretary of War
Pre-Pearl Harbor
7:30... 14 pt war message at 1 pm ? Cordel Hull
Pearl Harbor warnings
1. 14 pt war message
USS Ward
patrols the mouth of PH
Kimmel to blame
1. no recon
Captain Fushida
Japanese commander of J air elements in assault on PH
Admiral Nagumo
Japanese fleet commander of PH and Midway operation.
Pearl Harbor: battleship
8 stationed... all hit, 3 destroyed
Hickam field.
Pearl Harbor: planes
Pearl Harbor: block channel
USS Nevada only battleship to get steam, move.
3 US carriers escape!
ferry aircraft to Wake and Midway
simultaneous with PH
J attack Pacific Rim
December 8, 1941
J attack Luzon, Philippines
Philippines
country of Southeast Asia composed of many islands between Indonesia, Taiwan, and China
January 2, 1942
Manila, Philippines falls
Americans surrender Philippines
largest US surrender since Appomattox
April 1942.
Bataan Death March
Singapore
the "city of the lion" at the tip of the Malay Peninsula
Bomber
a large airplane that drops bombs on targets.
Depth charge
an explosive device designed to explode underwater.
Destroyer
a small, very fast warship that uses guns, missiles, and torpedoes to protect other ships from submarines.
diplomat
A person who works for a govenment and goes to other countries to talk about politics and business.
Dispatch
a message or report
Embargo
A government ban on trade with other countries.
Evacuate
to move away from an area because it is dangerous there.
Imperialists
people who want a national policy of gaining foreign territories or establishing dominance over other nations.
Negotiate
to bargain or discuss something so that you can come to an agreement..
Radar
The Battle of Britain, lasting from July through October of 1940, proved to be a great test for the British. This innovation of World War II helped the British to evade disaster.
Raid
a sudden, surprise attack on a place
Sabotage
the deliberate damage or destruction of property
Seize
to grab or take hold of something suddenly
shogun
strong military leaders - most powerful family was Tokugawa
Torpedo
an underwater missile that explodes when it hits a target, such as a ship.
Treaty
a formal agreement between two or more countries
Level 223