Level 223
Level 224

Nazi Germany


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Consolidation
When Hitler confirmed and strengthened his position in power between 1933-34 and destroyed the remains of the Weimar Republic
Rohm
Leader of the SA
Fuhrer
Meaning "leader." The title taken by Hitler when he became dictator of Germany.
Conscription
The Draft, a list of the young men that are ready to be enlisted in the army.
SS
The elite, ultra-loyal, bodyguards for Hitler
Himmler
Leader of the SS
Gestapo
The state secret police
Denunciation
Meaning to "dob-in" or inform on a friend, colleague or neighbour.
concentration camp
A prison where people work very hard and are given very little food. They work so hard that they usually die in a short time.
Autarky
A term used to describe a country that is economically self-sufficient and does not need to trade with other countries.
von Stauffenberg
Leader of the July Bom Plot of 1944 which tried to assassinate Hitler.
Concordat
An agreement signed by Napoleon and the Pope to restore the Catholic Church
Niemoller
A protestant minister who openly criticised the regime and spent 7 years in prison.
The White Rose
A movement of students in Munich who criticised the regime and distrinuted anti-Nazi leaflets. Led by Hans and Sophie Scholl
Sophie Scholl
Sister from the leaders of the White Rose
Hans Scholl
Brother from the leaders of the White Rose.
Jesse Owens
Black American athlete who won 4 gold medals at the Berlin Olympics of 1936
Nuremberg
City in Bavaria famous for the Nazi Rallies
Rallies
Name given to the big ceremonies and festivals organised by the Nazis involving parades, flags, salutes etc.
Swing Youth
Mainly middle-class youngsters who rebelled against the Nazis and listened to jazz music etc.
Edelweiss Pirates
The name the Nazis gave to mainly working-class youngsters who rebelled against the Nazis by singing banned songs, beating up Hitler Youth members, got drunk, had sex etc.
Strength Through Joy
A scheme designed to benefit hard workers with cheap theatre/cinema tickets, sport events, music etc.
Volkswagen
The "People's Car"
DAF
Initials for the German Labour Front which workers had to join.
Dr Robert Ley
Head of the German Labour Front (DAF)
Autobahn
German work for motorway
Reich Entailed Farms Law
Gave peasant farmers protection by saying banks could not take their property if they failed to pay loans or mortgages.
Volksgemeinschaft
German word for "National Community"
Dresden
German city bombed very heavily during World War Two
Kristallnacht
Night of the Broken Glass --German mobs and the state police throughout destroyed Jewish property, burned synagogues, and terrorized Jews on November 9, 1938.
Einsatzgruppen
Special SS Units who killed Jews in mass graves at the start of the Second World War.
Ghetto
A poor, densely populated city district occupied by Jews linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Wansee Conference
Name for a meeting held in January 1942 where the Nazis agreed on how to deal with the extermination of the Jews.
Eugenics
A new "science" subject brought in to Nazi Schools to teach the benefits of selective breeding and creating the master race.
Goebbels
Head of Propaganda in Nazi Germany
Mein Kampf
Hitlers book that he wrote in prison in which he lays out his plan to take control of Germany, no one took it seriously when in retrospect they really should have.
Prussia
land that was once a country in northern Europe and ruled by the Hohenzollern Family. It is now divided up between Germany, Russian and Poland.
Otto Von Bismarck
Former Prime minister of Prussia; builds military and decides Prussia will unite through Germany using "blood and iron"; defeats Austria and leads to Northern German states; unification of northern Germany
Kaiser Wilhelm II
hated Bismarck, opposed him, and forced him to resign; opposed repression of SPD
1918
Wilhelm abdicated in what year?
Proletariat
The growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wage earners.
2 million dead
Give 3 statistics for the cost of WW1 on Germany
Food and fuel shortages
Describe 3 aspects of living conditions in Germany during WW1
Sparticist
Group responsible for the 1918 revolution
Leaders of the Spartacus League
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
Friedrich Ebert
First President of the Weimar Republic
Communist
KPD - initials for the ... Party
The ... Party was created to protect the interests of who.
Centre Party - to protect the interests of the Catholic Church
Anyone over 20 years old
Who could vote in the Weimar Republic?
Why was the Weimar Republic said to be the 'most democratic' government in the world?
Proportional Representation - small and large parties all got a share of seats in the parliament.
Reichstag - elected by people
Name the 2 house of German parliament
Loss of territory - 70,000 sq km
Outline the 4 main conditions of the Treaty of Versailles
Too harsh
Give 3 reactions to the ToV from the German people.
Kapp Putsch
was a coup attempt in March 1920 aimed at undoing the results of the German Revolution of 1918-1919, overthrowing the Weimar Republic and establishing a right-wing autocratic government. It was supported by parts of…
Dr Wolfgang Kapp
Who led the Kapp Putsch and what were its aims?
The Kapp Putsch lasted 5 days how was it stopped?
Ebert had fled the city (it was the second time he had done this), he asked the workers in Berlin to go on strike = no transport, no gas, no water and no electricity
Explain the invasion of the Rhur
Germany had to pay reparations, originally meet these. 1922 claimed it could not pay any amount for the next 3 years. France unhappy - invaded Germany's Rhur (industrial area). Germany could take no military action = passive resistance.
1923
Canadian Amendment
Hyperinflation was terrible for everyone. True/false - why?
False - people with debt could now afford to pay it off, exporters produced products cheaply and made a profit.
Stressman and Schacht
Who and how was hyperinflation solved?
German Workers Party (DAP)
Name the political party Hitler was sent to spy on after WW1.
1919- 50 members
Provide statistics on the growth of the National Socialist German Workers party.
25 point programme
How many points did the Nazi programme have and what was their main aim?
Sturmabteilung/Stormtroopers (SA)
What was the name of the first armed force created by Hitler?
November 1923
Munich Putsch - who, what, where, when, why.
High treason
What was Hitler charged with in 1923?
USA gave Germany a loan of 800 million mark
Outline the 3 parts to the Dawes Plan of 1924:
Gustav Stressman
Name the man responsible for improving Germany' standing in the eyes of international countries - particularly because of the Locarno Treaty and League of Nations.
Explain Article 48
In an Emergency the President is allowed to make laws without consulting the Reichstag. Also known as government by decree.
12 - 107
Give the statistic for the number of seats the Nazi's gained as a result of the 1930 election.
Heinrich Bruning
Name the three Chancellors that preceded Hitler.
Rip up the treaty of Versailles
List 5 aims of the Nazi's once they gained power...
Nazi's held 37% of seats in Reichstag (largest party)
Give three facts that support Hitler coming to power legally...
Continual use of violence against opponents
Give three facts that support Hitler coming to power illegally...
nationalists
those in Ireland who wanted to gain more independence for Ireland from Britain
Communist Marinus van der Lubbe was caught at the scene.
Outline the Reichstag Fire of 1933 and how it benefited the Nazi Party.
Outlawed communists
What did the Law for the Protection of the People and State do?
What was the Enabling Law and how did it come to be?
The Enabling Law gave the Chancellor power for the next 4 years to make laws without the Reichstags approval.
Hitler became a dictator.
What did the Enabling Act mean in simple terms?
Gleichschaltung
Give the German word for the 'bringing into line' policy...
To ensure the government had total control of all aspects of society.
What was the main aim of Gleichschaltung and how did it achieve this?
The Night of the Long Knives
What even occurred in June 30th 1934 - what happened?
How did The Night of the Long Knives benefit Hitler?
Got rid of opponents and gained acceptance of legalised murder of opponents.
2nd August 1934 - Hindenburg dies.
When does Hitler become Fuhrer and what does this mean?
Once Hitler became Fuhrer how did German people greet each other?
German salute (raised arm at 45 degree angle) and said 'Heil Hitler'
What did Hitler believe his power was based on?
His unique relationship with the German people. He alone knew what the people wanted and only he could fulfill their needs.
Why was Hitler seen as a popular leader?
Germany had had 14 years of weak, divided government combined with economic and international humiliation. Germany was looking for a Messiah.
What did Volksgemeinschaft stand for?
People's community - the ideal Nazi community.
Give the 3 aims of Nazi rule:
Rebuild - particularly Germany's economy which was in ruin.
Work and bread
What was Hitler's 1933 election promise?
Outline 3 programs used to reduce German unemployment in the 1930s:
National Labour Service (Reichsarbeitsdienst - RAD) = jobs including manual labour, planting forests and digging ditches.
Explain the Nuremberg Laws:
A series of laws passed in 1935 - basically Jews were no longer allowed to be German citizens and lost most of their basic rights. Jews were only allowed to have certain first names, c…
Kristallnacht - Night of Broken Glass/ Crystal Night
On the 8th of November 1938 a Jew shot a Nazi official - what happened next?
What are the aims of a dictatorship?
To control people's everyday lives. The more control the government has the easier it is to put the party's aims into action.
Heinrich Himmler
was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler later appointed him Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army…
Gestapo - Secret Police
Name the 3 arms of the Nazi and police and outline their roles...
How did Hitler go about rearming Germany?
First increased the army from 100,000 to 300,000.
What was the Four Year Plan?
Started in 1935 lead by Himmler.
Campaigns were run to encourage women:
How did the Nazi Party encourage women to look?
What deemed a women an 'unfit' mother and what happened to her?
Mentally sick, low resistance to illness, previous children had proven to be weak or colour blind.
Explain 'Lebensborn'...
Fountain of Life.
How did Hitler and the Nazi's treat the Catholic Church?
Originally Hitler and Pope Pius XI signed an agreement to respect each others roles.
What happened to the Protestant Church under Nazi rule?
28 different church groups united to form the Reich Church and elected a Nazi Bishop.
How did religious sects fair under Nazi rule?
Astrologers, faith healers and fortune tellers were banned.
e.g. Reich Church
German Labour Front
Newspapers
List the main forms/methods of Nazi propaganda:
Politically and artistically valuable
What were the four film classifications created by the Nazi's?
Occupation of Bohmia
Saar Plebiscite 1935
What was the Einsatzgruppen?
SS Special Action Group / Mobil Killing Squad.
Belzec
Name 3 concentration camps:
Explain the 'Final Solution'.
Created at the Wannsee Conference.
Define facism.
One party control.
Democrats
KPD - left
Extremist attacks
Give 5 reasons for the Weimar Republic failing:
Nazi Party
German political party joined by Adolf Hitler, emphasizing nationalism, racism, and war. When Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933, the Nazi Party became the only legal party and an instrument of Hitler's absolute rule.
Students and SA got together and burnt them.
In May 1933 what happened to books deemed 'un-German'? What made a book 'un-German'?
Hyperinflation - money was next to worthless.
Two women were carrying a laundry basket filled to the top with banknotes. Seeing a crowd standing around a shop window they put down the basket to see what was happening. When they turned ar…
Labour Service
We work outside in all kinds of weather; shovelling dirt for very low pay, I'm trained as a printer...
Treaty of Versailles = specifically the War Guilt Clause.
The Allied Governments affirm and Germany accepts responsibility of Germany for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allies have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany.
NSDAP Twenty-Five Point Program
We demand abolition of income for unemployed people or for those making no effort...
What does NSDAP stand for?
National Socialist German Workers Party.
Freikorps
Name and spell the group of ex-servicemen who were anti-communist and nationalistic.
What is the Third Reich?
The time of Nazi Rule in Germany.
30 January 1933
President Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler Chancellor.
Reichstag fire.
27 February 1933
28 February 1933
Hitler given emergency powers by presidential decree.
5 March 1933
Reichstag elections. Nazis return 288 out of 647 deputies.
21 March 1933
Communist deputies forbidden to take seats in the new Reichstag.
24 March 1933
Adoption of the Enabling Act.
1 April 1933
National boycott of Jewish businesses and professional people. Significant SA violence on the day.
26 April 1933
Formation of the Gestapo.
2 May 1933
Dissolution of the labour unions.
10 May 1933
Burning of books in Berlin and throughout Germany.
14 October 1933
German withdrawal from the League of Nations.
12 November 1933
Reichstag elections. Nazis receive 93% of vote.
30 June 1934
Rohm and other leaders are purged in Night of the Long Knives.
2 August 1934
Death of President Hindenburg. Hitler declares himself Fuhrer of Germany. Army takes personal oath of loyalty to Hiter.
19 August 1934
Plebiscite on Hitler's new powers: 89.93% vote yes.
16 March 1935
Introduction of military conscription.
15 September 1935
Nuremberg Laws disenfranchising Jews decreed.
7 March 1936
German troops sent into the demilitarised Rhineland.
7 September 1937
Hitler declares the end of the Versailles Treaty.
12 March 1938
German troops cross Austrian border.
30 September 1938
Munich Agreement approving acquisition of the Sudentenland (in Czecheslovakia).
9 November 1938
Kristalnacht (Night of Broken Glass) in which mobs attack Jewish synagogues and stores throughout Germany.
12 November 1938
German Jews fined 1 billion marks.
15 November 1938
Expulsion of all Jewish children from German schools.
3 December 1938
Compulsory Aryanisation of all Jewish enterprises and shops.
4 July 1939
German Jews denied the right to hold government jobs.
23 August 1939
Soviet-German non-aggression pact with secret protocol on Poland.
1 September 1939
German invasion of Poland.
3 September 1939
Declaration of war on Germany by Great Britain and France.
9 April 1940
Invasion of Denmark and Norway by Germany.
10 May 1940
German invasion of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.
10 June 1940
Declaration of war by Italy on Great Britain and France.
14 June 1940
Occupation of Paris by Germans.
28 October 1940
Italian invasion of Greece.
22 June 1941
German invasion of the Soviet Union.
7 December 1941
Pearl Harbor attacked by Japanese.
31 January 1943
Von Paulus seeks surrender of German forces at Stalingrad.
5 July 1943
Start of the Battle of Kursk against the Soviets ending in the retreat of the German Army.
6 June 1944
D Day: Allied landings in Normandy.
14 January 1945
Invasion of East Prussia by Soviet troops.
7 March
Crossing of the Rhine at Remagen by the Americans.
30 April 1945
Hitler suicides in Berlin.
8 May 1945
V - E Day. End of WW2 in Europe.
Level 225