Level 229
Level 230

End of World War II

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Winston Churchill
Famous for his reckless courage in war. In order to repair the British navy he (and Lloyd George) raise many taxes (or at least help make it happen), to effect conservatives, he's never ever …
Roosevelt during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. He was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
Stalin, Churchill, FDR
What three leaders met at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences?
Nuremberg trials
(1945) A series of court proceedings held in Germany after World War II in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity. Many were convicted and received the death penalty.
(Clement) Attlee, (Harry) Truman, (Joseph) Stalin
What three leaders met at the Potsdam Conference? (August 1945)
In what German city did the powers of Europe meet to carve up Africa into colonies?
At what conference did the Allies agree to attack the Germans in France in the spring of 1944?
Tito (Josip Broz)
Who was the leader of Yugoslavia that refused to be used as a Stalinist puppet after WWII?
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Dean Acheson
Who said, "Like apples in a barrel infected by disease, the corruption of Greece would infect Iran and all the East...likewise Africa...Italy...France...not since Rome and Carthage has there been such a polarization of power on this earth."
Cold War
Series of events between U.S. and USSR where they compete for global dominance without directly fighting each other (capitalism vs. Communism)
(The) Marshall Plan
This was America's plan to give aid to needy European countries in the form of food, machinery, and other materials to help rebuild Europe. It was hugely successful.
George Kennan
..., an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of…
Containment foreign policy towards communism is containment
(Harry S.) Truman
Who replaced FDR as President of the US?
Douglas MacArthur
General who commanded the US forces in Asia during WW II
When Chiang Kai-shek was defeated in China, where did he set up his Nationalist gov't?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nat…
People's Liberation Army
What was the name of Mao Zedong's army?
berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
When discussing a nuclear attack on China who said, "We are trying to prevent a world war, not start one."
Omar Bradley
lead the first American army to land in France
surprise invasion of North Korea; the Chinese enter the war
Kim Il-Sung
Who was the communist leader of North Korea that invaded South Korea?
communist leader of the Soviet Union during WWII; sent enemies of the state to gulags in Siberia
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese communist leader
Geneva Convention (1954)
The French and the Vietnamese agreed to divide Vietnam into North and South countries and to unite them two years later through an election at what conference?
Francis Gary Powers
Who was the US pilot of the U2 plane that was shot down in the USSR?
Dien Bien Phu
The Communists Vietnamese forces defeated the French at what battle causing the French to want to get out of Vietnam?
Eisenhower (was in office from 1953-1961)
Who became the President of the United States after Truman? (Truman was in office 1945-1953)
(Richard) Nixon
Who was the Vice President under Eisenhower that went to the Soviet Union? (He later became president from 1969-1974)
(The) Bay of Pigs
What was the failed U.S./CIA sponsored overthrow of Communist gov't in Cuba in 1961 called?
South Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem
Corrupt, oppressive, and unpopular leader of South Vietnam. At first, he was supported by the US but was later overthrown and executed by his own government officials
JFK (1961-1963)
Who became president of the United States after Eisenhower? (Eisenhower was president from: 1953-1961)
'in addition to protecting Cuba, our missiles would have equalised what the West likes to call 'the balance of power'
Who killed JFK?
Lee Harvey Oswald
Jack Ruby
Who killed the person that killed JFK?
(Lyndon B. Johnson) LBJ
Who became president after JFK?
Who said, "We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves."
The Tet Offensive
What was the turning point in the war for Vietnam?( The North Vietnamese launched a set of surprise attacks, this set back the U.S. but, they were able to regain control)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
This law allowed the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S. to prevent further aggression in Vietnam.
What were the Islamic "holy warriors" who fought against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan called?
in 1939, the German army was only eclipsed by that of one nation, which?
Ayatollah Khomeini
Who overthrew the Shah of Iran in 1979?
My Lai
Shortly after the Tet Offensive, U.S. troops killed 300 civilians (mostly women and children) in what small village?
Shah Reza Pahlavi
Who was the leader of Iran that was forced from power twice in the 20th century?
(Erwin) Rommel
Who was nicknamed the "desert fox"?
Fat Man
What was the name of the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki?
(Admiral) Yamamoto
Who said that the US fleet in Hawaii was "a dagger pointed at our throat."
(General Douglas) Macarthur
Who said, "Hit 'em where they ain't, let'em die on the vine."
(Battle of) Midway
What battle was the turning point in the war in the Pacific
Battle Of The Coral Sea
A battle from May 4-8, 1942, in which U.S. naval forces successfully protected the Allied base at Port Moresby, New Guinea, the last Allied outpost standing between the Japanese onslaught and Australia. The battle, w…
French Indochina (Vietnam)
FDR cut off oil shipments to Japan after it took over what area?
Island hopping
WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan
Neville Chamberlain
PM of Great Britain before World War II.
(General) Gorgi Zhukov
What Russian General led a massive counter offensive against the Germans just outside of Moscow, in December of 1941?
Operation Sea Lion
Name of operation
RAF (Royal Air Force) and Luttwaffe
What were the names of the British and German air forces?
Location at which the French had to be evacuated by the British. Over 330,000 soldiers were rescued in the "miracle of the little ships."
Operation Barbarossa
The code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, which Hitler predicted would take only six months but ended up miring the German armies for more than two years.
Lighting war -- a typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces to take control of Poland and other European countries in 1939.
Charles De Gaulle
Who was the head of the French government in exile?
The Vichy Government
What was the name of the puppet government in southern France?
The Maginot Line
What was the name given to the French and British mobilized armies along the French and German boarder?
Denmark and Norway
What two countries did Hitler invade to end the Phony War?
Nagasaki and Hiroshima
Atomic bombs were dropped on these Japanese cities during WWII
Bock's Car
What was the name of the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Nagasaki?
Iwo Jima
American Marines landed on this island and captured it after a month of the most bitter fighting of the war.
The fighting on this islands was even more intense than on Iwo Jima. 263 Allied ships were sunk or damaged, but ultimately it was taken as an Allied victory.
(Bernard) Montgomery
What was name of the British general who led them to victory at El Alamein
December 7(th), 1941
What was the date of Pearl Harbor?
(Battle of) El Alemein
What battle was the turning point in the war for North Africa? It sent the Germans on the run out of Egypt.
Victor Emmanuel III
Who fired Mussolini ?
June 6, 1944
What was the date of D-Day?
eva braun
Hitler's mistress
Operation Torch
Codename for allied invasion of North Africa from November 1942 to September 1943
Enola Gay
the name of the American B-29 bomber, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets, Jr., that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
Paul Tibbets Jr.
Who piloted the Enola Gay?
What island was known as the "island of death"?
Charles Sweeney
Who piloted the plane that dropped the bomb on Nagasaki?
Robert J. Oppenheimer
Who was chief scientist during the Manhattan project?
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
What was the name of the Japanese parliament after WWII?
(Dwight) Eisenhower
Who was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces?
The Russian city where Hitler's advance was stopped
Operation Overlord
June 6, 1944 - Allied amphibious attack against Axis-held France. Thousands of Allied soldiers landed on the beaches of Normandy.
Internment Camps (or War Relocation Camps)
During WWII Japanese Americans were rounded up and put in these because the American government did not trust them.
(General) Friedrich Von Paulus
Who was the German general in charge of capturing Stalingrad?
Little Boy
What was the name of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima?
rocky and cliffy, north france
The Battle of the Bulge
World War 2 battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west. Connor
Battle of Leyte Gulf
What was the last ditch desperate Japanese attack that failed?
The Japanese surrender documents were signed on board of this U.S. ship.
What is the name of the machine that G.B. used to decode German plans?
Dwight Eisenhower
Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II leader of troops in Africa and commander in D-Day invasion. President in the 1950s
Internment Camps (Executive Order 9066)
The Interment was enforced because of December 7,1941 Pearl Harbor. A lot of Japanese were immigrating to Hawaii.
Women in the military
Congress instituted the Women's Auxiliary Army Crops later called WAC
Rosie the Riveter
Advertising campaign character during WWII to encourage women to take factory jobs
Zoot Suit Riots
The Zoot Suit Riots was when Mexican American youth in Los Angles faced discrimination violence in their own neighborhoods at the hands of US Servicemen. The riots occurred, because Mexicans were not treated fairly. …
Bracero Program
US hiring of Mexican workers during WWII
Island- Hopping
American strategy in fighting the Pacific war with Japan. It required the Japanese dominated islands be won for the US and that a military base be established there. The goal was to bomb and in…
Selective Service and Training Act
A draft when men get selected to go into service.
Yalta Conference
February 1945, war against Germany and Japan was still ongoing, but war was considered pretty much over
Potsdam Conference
August 1945, Truman yet to drop the bomb, Allies met again in Potsdam
A Phillip Randolph
He achieved jobs for African Americans.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
..., (1953-1957) and (1957-1961), when elected President, he was the most popular American; "I like Ike!" button. Modern Republicanism---didn't undo the New Deal of the Democrats. Called "The Republican's Choice" . He was the comma…
The largest invasion force in history led by Eisenhower.
June 6th, 1944
Date of D-Day
Omaha & Utah
Beaches America invaded on D-Day
Operation Fortitude
Codename of fake operation to decieve the Germans into believe an invasion would occur at Calaise
Normandy, France
Location of invasion on D-Day
Dropped into the fields of Normandy on the night of the invasion.
Beach where the Americans met the most resistance on D-Day
Operation Valkyrie
Assassination plot against Hitler involving Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg
Hitler's last offensive
Battle of the Bulge
Malmedy Massacre
Occurred on 2nd day of Battle of the Bulge and 81 Americans were murdered
April 20th, 1945
Date Hitler died
May 8th, 1945
VE Day- Germany surrenders
VE Day
May 9 1945
Internment camps
Detention centers where more than 100,000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.
Bataan Death March
Sick and malnourished American soldiers were forced to march 55 miles, put on a train that took them inland and forced to march 8 more miles to prison camps. Their Japanese captors showed no m…
Island located halfway between the Marianna Islands and Japan; U.S. marines fought for a month to capture this strategically important island.
harry truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Manhattan Project
The secret US project during World War II that made the first atomic bomb.
Trinity Test
America's extremely secret testing of its atomic power in New Mexico on July 16th, 1945
Land invasion
The commanders at Gallipoli decided to switch to this type of attack once the naval attack had failed.
A city in Japan that the US dropped an atomic bomb on at the end of World War II.
August 9, 1945 the United States dropped a second bomb on this city.
U.S.S. Missouri
U.S. vessel the Japanese formally surrendered on.
V-J Day
Victory over Japan Day was the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
the mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi camps during WWII
Hitler's "master race"
Nuremberg Laws
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Takeover of Jewish businesses
Final solution
Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish community in German held territories
A confined area of a city in which Jews could be controlled and segregated from general population until they were sent to concentration camps.
The state secret police
The elite, ultra-loyal, bodyguards for Hitler
the act of killing someone painlessly (especially someone suffering from an incurable illness)
Concentration Camps
prison camps established by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party for Jews and other political prisoners during the war.
a concentration camp for Jews dac created by the Nazis near Munich in southern Germany
Josef Mengele
Known as the Angel of Death, was a Nazi German SS officer and a physician in Auschwitz Nazi concentration camp. He performed pseudo-scientific experiments particularly on Gypsies and twins.
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there, 1940-1945, designed by Heinrich Himmler for the "Final Solution" of the Jews.
to free; to release from restraint or bondage
united nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Following WWII, Germany was _______
the nickname for the two most powerful countries in the world after WWII
Bad Weather
Kept Allied planes on the ground during the Battle of the Bulge
Doolittle Raid
A mission designed as a direct retaliation to Pearl Harbor that bombed the heart of Tokyo.
Tears of the Arizona
Oil seeping from the destroyed battleship in Pearl Harbor is known as _______
This US ship bombed at Pearl Harbor marks the site of the Pearl Harbor Memorial.
When FDR asked the U.S. Congress for a declaration of war on December 8, 1941 - he referred to December 7, 1941 as a "date which shall live in. . . . "
Pearl Harbor
military base settled by US in Hawaii
Allied with North Korea against UN/US forces
Non Agression Pact
Germany and the Soviet Union signed this pact and promised not to attack each other. Germany offered Stalin control of Eastern Poland and the Baltic States.
Policy of giving into aggressor nations to avoid conflict.
Style of government in Germany and Italy based on rascism and nationalism.
Single party, dictator, cult of the leader, ideology, a system of terror, control over media and culture, control over daily life, Centralised control of economy. What do these terms define Hitler's regime as?
ally=friend Allies= US, UK, France, and Soviet Union
Ghost Front
Nickname for the Ardennes Forest during WWII
Belgium port that was the objective for the Germans during the Battle of the Bulge
destroys tank
Buzz Bombs
Revenge .. Hitler to London
Colonel Count Klaus von Stauffenberg
assassination attempt w/ time bomb in suitcase
Bloody Anzio
Battle of Anzio
King Victor Emmanuel III
arrests Mussolini & mistress
Clara Petacci
Mussolini's mistress
land & sea force
led D-day
Dwight D. Eisenhower
English won possession after battle against English longbowmen and french knights.
Higgins Boats
Andrew Higgins
George Patton
Led the allied forces dring the invasion of North Africa, Sicily and Italy
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bu…
German city bombed very heavily during World War Two
Arthur Harris
V-E day
Victory in Europe Day celebrated the official defeat of the Nazis and end of WWII in Europe on May 8th, 1945.
Germans surrendered in school house
Japan in the Pacific
with victory in Europe achieved where would the allies direct their attention towards?
Axis Powers
Japan, Italy, and Germany in World War II.
Bataan March Death
May 1942 Japanese gain control over the Philippines, killing many Filipino and American Soldiers
Hideki Tojo
(1884-1948) Active in the Japanese army, he became the minister of war, and, later, Japanese prime minister in October 1941. With his aggressive foreign policy, he ordered the attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec…
Emperor Hirohito
emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god
Admiral Yamamoto, commander of Navy
who planned attack on Pearl Harbor
What marked the beginning of the Island-hopping Campaign
United States Marines victory over Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.
what was the purpose of the campaign?
to recapture Japanese held island lands, while bypassing others
July 1945, in Alamogordo, New Mexico
Where was the first atomic bomb held at?
August 8, 1945
when did the Soviet Union declare war on Japan
What did Emperor Hirohito do on August 10
emperor Hirohito intervened and forced the government to surrender. and on September 2, 1945 the formal peace treaty was signed on board the American battleship Missouri, anchored in Tokyo Bay
May 7, 1945
when did Germany surrender
Why did Japan attack the U.S.?
Japan attacked U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor because Japan needed oil and the U.S. had banned sale of oil to Japan ..Japan considered U.S. as a threat to its Empire
December 7 1941
When did this occur?
The U.S declared war
And what did the U.S. do about it?
What was the U.S.'s strategy in the Pacific (i.e., Asian) Theater?
To take over Japan in the Pacific now that the war in Europe was over, so the U.S created a series of bombs over Japan as a tactic to take over Japan
The Battle of Midway, June 4-7 1942
What battle was a major turning point in the Pacific Theater?
What was the reputation of the Japanese soldiers? Why?
The Japanese Soldiers viewed surrendering as weakness, because they believed that any warrior who surrendered had no honor. The Japs were cruel because they would be beaten or beheaded if they fell in a march.
Why is the Battle of Iwo Jima significant?
February 19- March 26 1945(35 day battle) the First American Attack on Japanese Homelands.Overwhelmingly the U.S is going to take over this Island. 22,000 Japs were killed. This tells us that Japan is goin…
Why is the Battle of Okinawa significant?
April 1-June 21 1945 (82 days of fighting) This Island is mainly populated with civilians. The war is over in Europe by this time but Japan is still holding out
The Japanese Airmen began to rely on Kamikazes
What tactic did Japanese airmen begin to increasingly rely upon during the Battle of Okinawa?
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
What other events took place during the 3 months of the Battle of Okinawa
Hitler killed himself, war is over in Europe, but fighting is still going on
The us began atomic bombing
In order to get the Japanese to stop with these kamikaze attacks, what did the U.S. do?
When did the war in Europe end and what was it called
War in Europe ended on May 8, 1945, it was called V-E Day (Victory in Europe)
Why were the Allies able to defeat the Axis Powers in Europe?
-location of Germany and its allies, forced Germany to fight several fronts
enormous productivity capacity
How did the United States have to do Germany's lose
How did Allied bombing affect Germany
it hindered german production. In affect oil became so scare that the Luftwaffe was almost grounded by the time of the D-day invasion
What happened at the Tehran Conference?
November 28, 1943 the Big Three discuss their strategy of how to defeat Nazi Germany and the importance of opening up the Western front. Primary purpose was to discuss the future course of the …
who are the big three, and where is Tehran?
The big three are Stalin(soviet Union) FDR(US), and Churchill(Great Britain).. Iran
What happened at the Yalta Conference?
Big Three meet in Yalta on Feb, 4, 1945, which is in Crimea. By this time the outcome of WWII is no longer in doubt.. The west and U.S.S.R do not trust each other. …
what is the solution in our eyes?
to make countries in Eastern Europe allied with Soviet Union
At the Yalta Conference, what emerges as the future plan for Germany once the war is over?
The Big 3 agree that the Soviet Union will enter the war against Jap…
How will Germany be reorganized?
The Big Three agree Germany will be divided into four zones governed by American, British, French, and Soviet forces... this sets the stage for the creation of West Germany and East Germany.
What happened at the Potsdam Conference?
Big three meet again July 17, 1945 in Potsdam, Germany(outside of Berlin)
April 12, 1945
When does FDR die and who takes over
Germany surrenders on May 8, 1945
When did the war end in Europe?
What became of Mussolini?
A lot of anger is put towars Mussolini, therefore he was dismissed from power on July 25 1943 by King Victor Emmanuel II. He was than arrested but he fled prison and tried to es…
what became of Hitler
Hitler and his wife Eva Braun commit suicide by drinking poison on April 30, 1945.
Why are nuclear weapons so awful?
They cause MASS destruction that kill everyone within view of it. Even the light of the bomb can kill your or blind you. The bomb causes the sky to become black, in affect of the horrible explosion they create
september 1, 1945
When did World War II officially end?
What were the Nuremberg Trials, and why were they significant?
Where when Hitler staged mass rallies in the 1930's. The trials showed that political and military leaders could be held accountable for actions in wartime. Even though the trials further discredited totalitarian governments, many wond…
How come the world wasn't really at peace once WWII was over?
Hostility between U.S and Soviet Union.. Soviet Union wants buffer states. The eastern countries were controlled by the Soviet Union. The U.S wanted to give those countries free elections. Ploand czech Hungary Bulgaria Romania Alb…
What does the term "Cold War" mean?
A state of tension and hostility aligned with the United States on one side and the Soviet Union on the other, without armed conflict between the major rivals.
What is the "Iron Curtain"? Be able to explain this metaphor.
The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.…
The iron curtain
The imaginary line of secrecy and mistrust that separated the USSR and Eastern Europe from the West was known
what were the buffer states
East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Poland, and Bulgaria
Truman insists on free elections in Eastern
As WWII drew to a close, what did Stalin want? What did the West want (i.e., President Truman)?
The West vs. Soviet Union
What is the United Nations? What is its purpose?
created April 1945 when delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to draft a charter. The UN would play a greater role in world affairs than the League of Nations. The purpose wa…
Who are the 5 permanent members of the UN?
The U.S., the Soviet Union(Russia), Britain, France, and China. they had the right to veto any council decisions.
what could to security council do
provide economic sanctions or send a peace-keeping military force
Al Capone
He was a mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the 20s and the problems with gangs.
These were women who abandoned dress and conduct codes of the past who became a symbol of the "Roaring Twenties" and shocked their elders with short skits, slang, new dances, heavy makeup, and drinking or smoking in public
Lively U.S. musical style developed in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago
The Red Scare
(a fear of communism) emerged. This fear was fueled by (1) the recent Russian revolution, (2) Eugene Debs growing numbers, (3) loads of strikes, and (4) a series of mail bombs.
Scopes Trial
A highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Cour…
Black Thursday
October 24, 1929, the day the stock market crashed an astounding 9 percent (after a decade of great prosperity); a signal (though not the only cause) of the Great Depression
Civilian Conservation Corps
A New Deal agency that completed many conservation projects.
The Dust Bowl
Great Plains struck by a massive draught, top soil blown away and wheat became unable to grow, unable to farm, many head west to work elsewhere
Margin Buying
It is when people get a loan from their broker to buy shares of stocks. all they needed was 10% and they promised to pay the other 90% back in the future.
FDR's New Deal
Relief, Recovery, Reform-- relief (jobs, money, welfare, housing, bank recovery) [FDIC - federal deposit insurance corp-- banks needed money to function and people were scared to put $$ into banks after sock market cras…
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to …
Public Works Administration
(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects …
Social Security Act
1. gives money to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children
Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.
Works Progress Administration
A New Deal agency that built dams, post offices, hospitals, and other buildings.
Giving in to prevent war.
Neutrality Acts
declared that the US would not get involved in foreign affairs; isolationist
Coral Sea
Crucial naval battle which stopped the Japanese march across the Pacific, first time all fighting was done by carrier based aircraft
D-Day Invasion
invasion led Dwight D. Eisenhower, started in Normandy, on june 6th 1944, was a success, turing point of WWII, first time allied forces successfully set foot in europe
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Allowed America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
naval battle in which America defeated the Japanese and became the supreme naval power in the Pacific; June 4-7, 1942
Pearl Harbour
Japan attack on Dec 7 1941 and sank or destroyed Arizona, Utah, Oklahoma, California, and Wst Virginia
Domino Theory
President Eisenhower's theory that if Vietnam fell communist, other countries would also soon fall communist; like dominoes. Therefore, it was important to keep Vietnam from falling communist
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
End of WWII
September 2, 1945
Selective Service System
Continues draft during Cold War
Atomic Energy Commission
Agency of the United States government established after WWII by congress to foster and control the peace time development of atomic science and technology
National Security Act of 1947
1947. Reshape US military. Response to threat of the Soviet Union. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Department of Defense
1947. Oversees all things related to the US military (Army, Navy, Marines, etc). HQ in the Pentagon
National Security Council
1947. Foreign Policy. An agency in the Executive Office of the President that advises the president on foreign policy.
Central Intelligence Agency
1947. CIA. Collects information in national interest. Active in overthrowing communists in LA by supporting democratic dictators fighting communism
Berlin Crisis
1948-49 Soviets blockade roads into W Berlin. US flies supplies into W Berlin. "Berlin air lift"
Created in 1949-Nations in Western Europe who were friendly towards the US.
Warsaw Pact
Created in 1955-Nations in Eastern Europe who were dominated by the USSR.
Truman's Fair Deal
Fears a depression (natural boom-bust cycle). Education, higher wages, civil rights, expand social security, end rationing, cut taxes, conservation.
Clears slums, public housing
National Housing Act of 1949
Fair Employment Practices Act
Stops discrimination in industries that held government contracts.
Blacks and the Fair Deal
End segregation in Military, end discrimination in gov't jobs, Shelley v. Kramer 1948 - end blocking blacks from neighborhoods (de Facto segregation)
Post WWII Economy
Boom! No depression like WWI, Inflation, demand for higher wages + labor unrest. Shift to consumer production.
Taft-Hartley Act
Law passed congress in 1947 that allowed the President to declare an 80 day cooling-off period when strikes impact industries that affected the National interest, and required strikes to return to work while government condu…
GI Bill of Rights
a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and li…
Truman and Israel
Truman support Jewish Israel = Arab/Muslim states angered.
Election of 1948
Truman (D) vs. Dewey (R) - Voters disappointed in Truman and course of Cold War + split Dems (S. Dixiecrats anti-civil rights)
Spread of Communism
China in 1949. Blame 'losing' China on Truman. Korea 1950 N. Korea invades S. Korea = Korean War
Result of failing containment
NSC reports US can't depend on other countries. Result = military spending increases!
Nuclear Fear
Duck and cover, air raid drills, Goal =prepare ppl for nuclear attack
Post-War Japan
General Douglas MacArthur in charge of Allied occupation. Creates democratic Parliamentary gov't. Emperor becomes a figure head.
General Douglas MacArthur
United states general during the Great Depression, World War ll and Korean War. Was forced by Truman to resign in 1951 (pg. 66) -Alex
Korean War
the 'Forgotten War'; 1950-1953
Truman fires MacArthur
MacArthur criticized Truman's "limited war" policies = fired for insubordination. American ppl = upset
Red Scare (Part II)
Fear of Communist conspiracy similar to the 1920s. Democrats = "soft" on communism. HUAC, Alger Hiss, Federal Employee Loyalty Program, McCarran Internal Security Act, the Rosenburgs
Alger Hiss
American lawyer involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S state department and the U.N official. Hiss was accused of being a soviet spy.
Federal Employee Loyalty Program
Check loyalty of gov't officials - President Truman. Response to Alger Hiss trials/claim that Democrats are "soft on communism." Result = 2,000 ppl resign
McCarran Internal Security Act
1950 Require communists to register w/ gov't and publish information. Truman described it as step toward totalitarian gov't - override veto. Response to the onset of the Korean war.
Rosenberg Trials
1951 Couple executed for espionage - giving secrets for A-Bomb to Soviet Union. = Communist hysteria!!
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Army McCarthy Hearings
When McCarthy accused ppl in Army, the Secretary of Army orders investigations. Televised, shows McCarthy = fraud
..., The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
Hollywood 10
A famous case by HUAC where many of the top Hollywood writers, directors, and actors, were called to court to testify as being aligned with the Communist Party and its beliefs or not. These celebri…
Election of 1952
Eisenhower (R) vs. Stevenson (D) - Eisenhower "Ike" promises ending Korean War, he does. Reps accused Dems of being "soft on communism)
Eisenhower's Domestic Programs
Keynesian Welfare (deficit spending). Expand Social Security, unemployment comp, minimum wage. Fed Highway Act 1956. St. Lawrence Seaway project (loc sys. in Great Lakes)
Economic Growth 1950s
Keynesian gov't spending. Baby boom = consumers+. Growth of West. Higher wages. Suburbia!
Medical Breakthroughs 1950s
Antibiotics (from WWII). Penicillin. Vaccines increase - POLIO 1954.
Astronauts v. Cosmonauts
Space race against Soviets. Yuri Gagarin (Soviet) = 1st man in space. Goal = moon!
Identical mass produced houses
The Suburban Family
Post-WWII most women leave workforce to be moms/wives. Back to traditional gender roles
Television in the 1950s
HUGE BOOM! Replaced other media. ABC, NBC, CBS
Sierra Club
American environmental organization. Helped promote the protection of the environment and nature.
Social Conformity of 1950s
No one wants to stand out w/ rampant suspicion of communists. White collared workers out# blue collar (1st time) and businesses wanted conformity. Service sector increases!
The Organization Man
Written by William Whyte; attacked the way businesses wanted conformity
Anti-conformists. Young poets, writers, and artists, criticized business and middle class society. Increase in juvenile deliquincy
Rock 'n' Roll
Start w/ blacks -> Elvis. Record sales BOOM
The Other America
Michael Harrington, 1/5 the population was living below poverty line bc. declining opportunities for unskilled workers + blacks rejected for jobs, housing, educated.
1955 two larger labor unions united. Jimmy Hoffa = leader. American Federation Labor - Congress of Industrial Organization. Skilled + unskilled
by law
De jure segregation
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Segregation in the South
Became legal w/ Plessy v. Fergusen. Schools, restaurants etc.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal (violate 14th amendment granting blacks citizenship) and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Brown II ruling
1960 After Brown v. Board < 1% of Southern schools desegregated = Supreme Court ordered desegregation "with all deliberate speed"
Rosa Parks
Civil rights leader which refused to give up her seat on the whites bus and thus created a civil rights movement.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
381 days where blacks carpool and busses almost go bankrupt until they are desegregated by Supreme Court
Murder of Emmett Till
1955 black teen from Chicago murdered in deep South after he allegedly whistled at a white woman. Mother keeps open casket to display cruelty and brutality of racism. Murderers found not guilty = international out…
Little Rock 9
(1957) Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. 9 African-American students became the first to attend. The 101st Airborne sent in by Eisenhower to escort the students to class.
Organization formed by MLK in 1957 to organize nonviolent resistance to achieve equality for African Americans
Congress of racial equality: an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality, a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement from…
Organization founded in 1960 by college students to organize sit-ins and other nonviolent protests and offer young people a voice in the movement; became more radical in the late 1960s under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael
Causes of Civil Rights Movement
1. Blacks fought in WWII
Eisenhower-Dulles foreign policy. Take the country to the brink of war, using the threat of massive retaliation with nuclear weapons as a diplomatic tool.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Apply containment to the Middle East, used CIA to overthrow communist gov'ts (Guatemala and Iran)
1946 - 1954 an organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that fought for Vietnamese independence from the French
US Involvement in Vietnam
Domino theory = US sends money to French to overthrow communist, but refuse to send in military...French lose
Geneva Accords
Agreement between French and Vietnamese that divided Vietnam into two separate countries
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. Can travel through space at different targets. "Missile Gap" Khrushchev claims USSR has more missiles, Eisenhower reassures the Americans are ahead
Kitchen Debates
Summer 1959 VP Nixon debates w. Khrushchev over which country is superior
U2 Incident
US had been flying spy missions over Soviet Union. Soviets shot down American U2 spy plane flown by Francis Gary Powers. = Canceling of a US/USSR summit, the then growing relations broken
22nd Amendment
Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
Ike's Farewell Address
Warned US of being too dependent on military spending. Ike had kept spending low, restrain creation of a massive military
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