Level 231
Level 232

From World War II to the Cold War


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19th century
The years 1800-1899.
achieve
To get something or do something that you want.
achieved
Won, when you got something by fighting or working hard for it.
address
Another way to say 'speech' or 'talk' given to a group of people by one person (a leader, professor, etc.)
Adlai Stevenson
A US ambassador to the United Nations during the Cold War.
afford
To be able to do something or spend money without worrying.
alliance
When two people or countries decide that they will be friends and will defend each other.
Allied Powers
The US, UK, France and Soviet Union(at the end) who fought together during World War II.
Allies
ally=friend Allies= US, UK, France, and Soviet Union
ammunition
Bullets and bombs which are used in guns and cannons.
anxiety
The feeling of being really worried or nervous about something bad.
Arrest
When the government thinks that you have done something wrong and they come take you to prison.
atomic bomb
A BIG bomb that can destroy cities.
attack
When someone is the first person to hit someone or something.
bad-tempered
When someone is in a bad mood or gets angry easily.
balance
When two countries are both strong and decide not to fight because it would be bad for both countries.
band
A group of people.
based on
When you use ideas from someone else to help you make your own ideas.
battle
A fight. Many of these are called a war.
beliefs
The ideas that are important to you (religion, politics, etc.)
bitter
Really bad, when people are mad at each other. (It really means 'a bad taste')
blinding flash
A light that is so bright you can't see.
Bolsheviks
A Russian political party (group) that started the Soviet Union.
bound for
Going to a place
boundaries
Where one country ends and another country (or the ocean) begins. Similar to the word borders.
British
Someone/thing from England.
broke out
When violence happened suddenly.
buffer zone
The land between two countries that are fighting which helps make one or both countries feel safer.
by force
To make someone do something using violence or the threat of violence.
came into conflict
When two people or countries begin fighting about something.
Capitalism
An economic system that allows for individual choice, where the government does not interfere with business.
capitalist
A person who believes in capitalism or who is a rich business owner. A system that uses capitalism.
Civil War
Confederacy (the Southern states) vs. Union (the Northern states), 1861-1864
civilization
A society that is advanced (has laws, buildings, government, etc).
class war
Fighting between rich people and poor people.
clubs
Sticks that you hit people with.
Coalition
A temporary alliance
Cold War
Series of events between U.S. and USSR where they compete for global dominance without directly fighting each other (capitalism vs. Communism)
collectivized
When the government comes and takes land or buildings that were owned by one person and gives it to a group of poor people.
commit
To say you are going to do something.
common ground
When two people who are enemies find something that they agree about.
communism
Government leaders, not citizens, control industry and wealth.
competing
When two people are fighting to get what they want. (This is also used about two ideas like communism and capitalism).
comrade
Friend or co-worker. What the soviet people called each other.
concentration camp
A prison where people work very hard and are given very little food. They work so hard that they usually die in a short time.
condemn
To decided that someone is bad and that they should die or be put in prison.
conference
A meeting.
confiscate
When the government comes and takes your land and/or your things away.
confrontation
A fight.
Congress
A group of leaders who decide what the law should be.
consume
When something is so powerful that it affects everyone.
contest
A game or war where there are winners and losers.
continent
A very large piece of land. (North America, Europe, and Asia are examples).
cooperation
When people help each other.
corrupt
When a leader cares more about making him or herself rich than doing what is right for the people.
cradle
The bed that an infant sleeps in.
curtain
The cloth that covers a window.
dealing with
Talking with someone to solve a problem or do something together.
decade
10 years
declare
To say something loudly in public.
defeated
A person or country who has lost a game or a war.
defend
To fight for something you believe in or like.
democracy
A political system where people are able to decide who their leader will be.
democratic
When a person or a country is able to choose its own leader.
demoralized
Unhappy, when you don't want to fight or do something.
descended
Come down.
desert
Dry land where there is very little water.
destined
Something that will happen in the future.
determined
When you have an idea or plan and no one can change your mind.
diary
A book with blank pages that you write in everyday about what happened in your day.
dictator
A leader who has complete control of a country and who kills anyone who disagrees with him.
diplomat
A person who works for a govenment and goes to other countries to talk about politics and business.
disappearance without explanation
When the government (or another group) doesn't like you and they take you away and your family never knows what happened to you.
disparity
The difference between two people (rich vs poor).
dissent
When people are not happy with their government and say or do something to show it.
distrust
When you don't trust someone.
doomed
When something is going to fail.
effort
When you try to do something.
election
When people go to a place and write down who they want to be their leaders.
ends
What you are trying to do, your goals.
engulfed
To completely cover or surround something.
epic
Really big and important.
equality
When people are treated the same and get the same amount of money, rights, etc.
escalated
Kept getting more powerful.
escape
To get away from something bad.
essential
Something that you have to have... you can't live without it.
establish
To start a business or group.
event
When something happens.
Exile
To banish
existence
Something or someone is in the world (not gone or dead).
farm
A place where you have fields to grow plants to eat.
fervor
When someone is crazy because they are so excited about something (religion, etc.)
field
Land where you grow plants to eat.
forcible
Using force or violence to get what you want.
free trade
When you can do business with whatever person or country you want to without paying extra taxes to the government.
Gorbachev
A Soviet president during the Cold War (the last one before the end of the Soviet Union).
grand
Important, great.
growing sense
A feeling that becomes more and more intense.
growing unease
To get more and more worried.
hammer
A metal tool that you hit nails (round thin pieces of metal) with.
hands
Another way to say 'people'.
Hindu
A religion in India.
Hiroshima
A city in Japan that the US dropped an atomic bomb on at the end of World War II.
his subjects
The people who have him as a king.
House of Commons
One part of the congress of the UK.
Ich bin ein Berliner
German: 'I am a person from Berlin'
ideologies
This comes from the word idea and describes what people believe about politics or religion.
imperialist
A person or country that believes it should be an empire and be able to control other countries.
impose
To make a country or a person do what you want them to do even if they don't want to.
impotent
Weak. Not strong.
Level 233