Level 237
Level 238

Origins of the Cold War


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communism
Government leaders, not citizens, control industry and wealth.
democracy
A political system where people are able to decide who their leader will be.
Yalta Conference
February 1945, war against Germany and Japan was still ongoing, but war was considered pretty much over
Big 3
Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill
5 Agreements @ Yalta
USSR joined war with Japan, form UN, Poland agreement, declaration on liberated europe, divide Germany between 4 countries
Truman
now president, Roosevelt died
Truman & Molotov
Truman was harsh and rude
Potsdam-July 1945
decisions on what was best for Germany, Truman had a deal with Stalin that he had to accept
united nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
UN Headquarters
New York, NY
Truman's deal with Stalin @ Potsdam
Stalin could take reparations from his section of Germany
Germany's division
1 to US, 1 to USSR, 1 to FR, 1 to UK
Poland Agreement
The exiles that fled would come back and have a position in the government and there would be free elections
Ban Ki-Moon
UN Secretary General
Security Council
China, US, UK, France, USSR
Containment
Containment foreign policy towards communism is containment
George Kennan
..., an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of…
Crisis in Iran
USSR took over, demanded oil
Containment in Iran
US showed force, placed a battle ship near Iran and the USSR backed down
Crisis in Turkey
USSR tried to gain control of the Dardanelles Straits
Crisis in Greece
Communist rebels fought the government
March 12, 1947
Truman gave a speech to a joint session of Congress and asked for 400 million dollars
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Long Term Effect of Truman Doctrine
US pledged to stop/fight communism everywhere
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
ERP
European Recovery Plan (Marshall Plan)
Molotov Plan
USSR version of the Marshall Plan
Positive Effects of MP
the appeal of communism diminished, gave 13 billion dollars to West Europe
Negative Effects of MP
separated East & West Europe, made cold war worse
Berlin Blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S.…
June 24, 1948
blockade is placed around west berlin
berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
May, 1949
Stalin lifted the Blockade
CIA
Central intelligence agency is one of the principal intelligence gathering agencies in united states federal government. Its employees operate from the U.S embassies and many other locations.
created the CIA
National Security Act of 1947
Functions of CIA
coordinated intelligence gathering activities, evaluated the intelligence, distributed it to the policy makers, and performed other things the President needed them to do
CIA act of 1949
CIA could spend unlimited money, gave CIA more power
NATO
Created in 1949-Nations in Western Europe who were friendly towards the US.
Why NATO was formed
military was needed to stop communism in West Europe
NATO headquarters
Brussels, Belgium
Warsaw Pact
Created in 1955-Nations in Eastern Europe who were dominated by the USSR.
independence movements
colonies became independent nations
China's problem
communist, largest country in the world
China's government
lost to communism, Mao Zedong, containment failed
Members of the UN Security Council
Russia, UK, US, France, and China
Level 239