Level 239
Level 240

Cold War


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Cold War
Series of events between U.S. and USSR where they compete for global dominance without directly fighting each other (capitalism vs. Communism)
rivalry
A competition between two or more groups. During the Cold War the U.S. and the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R) competed for world power.
superpower
a huge powerful country (state)
communism
Government leaders, not citizens, control industry and wealth.
Containment
Containment foreign policy towards communism is containment
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
NATO
Created in 1949-Nations in Western Europe who were friendly towards the US.
berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
GATT (General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade)
1947 - to promote unrestricted trade, particularly reduction of tariff
Korean War
the 'Forgotten War'; 1950-1953
defense spending
government spending for military armaments, equipment, and personnel
business cycle
Recurring fluctuations in economic activity consisting of recession and recovery and growth and decline
Military-Industrial Complex
the connection between military and defense build up. It was based at the pentagon and gave money to defense mobilization.
cuban missle crisis
..., The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
Sputnik
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
satellite
An object that revolves around another object in space
McCarthyism
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
Venona Papers
deciphered messages from the Soviets that revealed the names of Soviet spies. Led to Julius Rosenberg's execution and the trial of Alger Hiss. It showed 359 individuals who were involved in espionage for Soviets
HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee)
~ Beginning in 1947, this committee investigated possible Communist infiltration of the entertainment industry and the government.
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satellite nation
one that is dominated politically and economically by a more powerful nation
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Mao Zedong
a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949
38th Parallel
Dividing line between North and South Korea. Ended in stalemate.
Warsaw Pact
Created in 1955-Nations in Eastern Europe who were dominated by the USSR.
HUAC
..., The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
blacklist
list that circulated among employers, beginning in 1947, containing the names of persons who should not be hired because they were communist sympathizers
Joseph McCarthy
A US senator who was very worried that communists were trying to take over the world (and the US).
McCarran-Walter Act
(HH) 1929 , immigration law that discriminated against Asians and south Europeans
deterrence
the act or process of discouraging actions or preventing occurrences by instilling fear or doubt or anxiety
brinkmanship
..., A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
ICBM
Intercontinential ballistic missiles; guided missiles that could travel thousands of miles and strike targets accurately.
U-2 incident
..., The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. prod…
Preparation
The key to success
Baby Boom
Dramatic increase in birthrate, especialy in the years following WWII. - Marc
1950's Lifestyle
Everyone wanted security and stability, everyone moved to suburbs. Corporate men all wore same suits. Family life: everyone married, stayed married, women stayed home and took care of the house and kids.
Levitt Towns
Made by William Levitt who produced 150 houses per week that all looked the same.
Silent Generation
youth of the 50's that seemed to conform to middle class culture without question.
beatnik
In the 1950s, a person who criticized American society as apathetic and conformist
Jack Kerouac
A key author of the Beat movement whose best selling novel, On the Road that stressed an unrestricted (spontaneous) lifestyle.
Rock-and-Roll
Type of music that grew out of rhythm-and-blues. People like Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley made this type of music. KELSEY
Transistor
A tiny circuit device that amplifies, controls, and generates electrical signals. (invented 1947). Merhawi
Jonas Salk
Developed the polio vaccine in 1952
price controls
Regulation of prices by establishing maximum price levels for goods or services, as during a period of inflation. These were lifted after WWII and prices rose FAST!
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Conglomerate
Corporation made up of three or more unrelated businesses - Rico
Franchise
A business that contracts to offer certain goods and services from a larger parent company (p 669) Colin
Reconversion
the social and economic transition from wartime to peace -Stuart (pg. 680)
Railroad strike of 1946
during this Truman wanted to draft all the workers into the army so he could force them to work
Taft-Hartley Act
Law passed congress in 1947 that allowed the President to declare an 80 day cooling-off period when strikes impact industries that affected the National interest, and required strikes to return to work while government condu…
Truman's Fair Deal
Fears a depression (natural boom-bust cycle). Education, higher wages, civil rights, expand social security, end rationing, cut taxes, conservation.
1948 Election
Truman won against Dewey- Truman was not expected to win
Modern Republicanism
Ike`s approach to "dynamic conservation" ex. cutting spending, reducing taxes, and balancing the budget -Abby
K1C2
Korea, corruption, communism. Eisenhower/Nixon's campaign message: end war in korea, end corruption, anti-communism.
Eisenhower Doctrine
Apply containment to the Middle East, used CIA to overthrow communist gov'ts (Guatemala and Iran)
Sputnick
first satellite into space by Soviets--> concern in US that US was behind. leads to increase in US science/ engineering programs.
NDEA
National Defense Education Act provided money for education. Billions of dollars poured into math and science following Sputnik.
Have you studied enough?
Go back over the ones you are not 100% sure of 3 more times....You can ace this test if you do!!
berlin wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
united nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Nikita Khrushchev
For the first few years after Stalin's death in 1953, a group of leaders shared power. As time went by, however, one man did gain power. Like Stalin, he believed that communism would take …
NASA
National Aeronautic and Space Administration - a US government agency in charge of the space program
Fidel Castrol
communist leader of Cuba
John F Kennedy
A very famous US president during the Cold War. He was killed by a man with a gun in the 1960's.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
an embarissing attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro that was organized by the US
Cuban Missile Crisis
the US discovers nuclear missiles are on their way to cuba so they take action and the ships from russia turn around
Alliance for Progress
program under Kennedy and Johnson that increased US economic aid to Latin American nations that agreed to economic and social reforms. ($20 billion over 10 years).
Peace Corps
set up by JFK as an effort to help out third world countries
Organization of American States
encouraged progress in Latin America
Ronald Reagan
A US president during the cold war (the last one before the Berlin Wall was destroyed).
Iran Contra Affair
scandal including arms sales to the Middle East in order to send money to help the Contras in Nicaragua even though Congress had objected
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. Proxy war between…
Domino Theory
President Eisenhower's theory that if Vietnam fell communist, other countries would also soon fall communist; like dominoes. Therefore, it was important to keep Vietnam from falling communist
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese communist leader
Lyndon Johnson
36th President was elected because Kennedy got assassinated
Vietcong
South Vietnam
detente
reducing of tensions between the USSR and the US which led to the end of the Cold War
Glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union. Personal freedom- unbans media.
summit meeting
meetings of highest ranking officials from two or more nations
SALT agreements
Strategic Arms Limitations Treaties; worked to reduce arms during the Cold War
Star Wars
Ronald Reagan's Cold War research program that hoped to build up satellites capable of intercepting Soviet missles from space
Boris Yelstin
democratically elected Russian leader that brought the Cold War to an end
Great Leap Forward
Plan to rapidly industrialize China during the 1950's
38th
The division of Korea
DMZ
Demilitarized zone between North and South Korea
Fidel Castro
..., Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and…
Nikita Khruschev
Soviet leader who sent missiles to Cuba
Joseph Stalin
He tried to crush all opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator of the U.S.S.R. until his death.
John F Kennedy
US president during the Bay of Pigs invasion
totalitarian
Single party, dictator, cult of the leader, ideology, a system of terror, control over media and culture, control over daily life, Centralised control of economy. What do these terms define Hitler's regime as?
command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
Market Economy
When prices and production are controlled by the consumer and the forces of supply and demand
Viet Cong
North Vietnamese sympathizers who fought against the US using guerilla tactics
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea in 1950s
French Indochina
(DDE) a French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the French fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism.
Little Red Book
This contained motivational quotes from Mao Zedong
Pol Pot
Communist leader of Cambodia
Khmer Rouge
Communist guerilla fighters in Cambodia
Killing Fields
Where Pol Pot sent people to work in fields until death
Level 241