Level 240
Level 241

Cold War II

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Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. Dome…
economic and political restructuring by Gorbachev
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression, first non communism trading union. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Lech Walesa
He was elected President of Poland in 1990 with the help of the Solidarity movement
Iron curtain speech
Given by the former Prime Minister of Britain, Winston Churchill, in Missouri, in which he talks about the dangers of communism engulfing Europe.
An economic system that allows for individual choice, where the government does not interfere with business.
A political system where people are able to decide who their leader will be.
East/West Germany & Berlin
After WWII, the Allies divided Germany into East Germany (controlled by the Soviet Union) and West Germany (shared by Britain, France, and the U.S.); the capital of Germany, Berlin, was also divided into East…
proxy wars
Wars in which the superpowers armed and financed one side in a country's civil war so that a certain system (Communism or non-Communism) would win power in that country
Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb)
A type of nuclear weapon at least one thousand times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to surpass the Soviets' weapons supply. (look closely at image)
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs)
An extremely long-range missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead from the homeland of one superpower to the homeland of the other
Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)
An understood rule that if two opposing sides used nuclear weapons to fight each other, they would both (mutually) be destroyed.
Molotov Plan
USSR version of the Marshall Plan
Chinese Cultural Revolution
Mao created the Red Guard (Chinese youth army) to kill intellectuals to create a society made of peasant and laborers, purely Communist and non-intellectual (1966- 1968).
Chinese Civil War
1927-1949, War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan. Between KMT and CCP, and the Chinese Communist Party were victorious over the KMT.
Red Guard
The youths who led Mao's Cultural Revolution. Wore red arm bands and carried his book. Terrorized Chinese citizens and determined who went to camps.
The Mukden incident
Chinese nationalism --> Japan worried. 1931 Japan makes an excuse for their aggression: they secretly blew up their own railroad tracks near Shenyang (Mukden). Then, they sent reinforcements saying it was for "self-defense."
Asia for Asians
A slogan used by the Japanese to inspire pan-Asian nationalism in the region. Supposedly to free Asians from European colonial rule, but in actuality resulted in Japanese colonizing these territories themselves.
Tripartite Pact
1940 alliance between Japan, Germany, and Italy established by a 3 party agreement
The Rape of Nanjing
Japanese troops marched into the city of Nanjing, China on December 13, 1937. After the city's surrender the Japanese killed hundreds of thousands of soldiers and civilians and brutalized and raped still more.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain. Fascist Gen. Francisco Franco led a rebellion against the Spanish gov't. The revolt became a civil war & increased tensions that led to WW II. The Soviet U…
Francisco Franco
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
Giving in to prevent war.
Nazi-Soviet Pact
Agreement between Hitler and Stalin that ensured that neither would take military action against the other.
Lighting war -- a typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces to take control of Poland and other European countries in 1939.
The Battle Of Britain
Later in the summer of 1940, Germany launched a further attack on Britain, this time exclusively from the air. The Battle of Britain was Germany's first military failure, as the German air force, the Luftwa…
was an important component of Nazi ideology in Germany. The Nazis supported territorial expansionism to gain Lebensraum as being a law of nature for all healthy and vigorous peoples of superior races to displace pe…
Operation Barbarossa
The code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, which Hitler predicted would take only six months but ended up miring the German armies for more than two years.
The largest invasion force in history led by Eisenhower.
Lend-Lease Program
Act of 1941 that permitted the US to led or lease arms and other supplies to the Allies. This evolved out of the "cash and carry" policy, and showed that the U.S. was read…
Pearl Harbor
military base settled by US in Hawaii
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Firebombing of Dresden
1945, British and Americans brught total war to new level, dropping fire bombs in Germany. Thousands of civilians fled to underground shelters and suffocated. Created firestorm that may have killed as many as 100,000 inhabitants and refugees in Germany.
Anti-Nazi Partisan Groups
These were groups of fighters and saboteurs all over Nazi-occupied Europe during WWII that actively resisted the Nazis by fighting using guerrilla tactics, sabotaging Nazi equipment and operations, spying, hiding crashed Allied pilots or lost soldiers, etc.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
April 19, 1943 to May 16, 1943; Warsaw, Poland: Jewish resistance against Nazi Germany after the second expulsion/deportation of Jews to concentration camps
Comfort Women
sex slavery of Korean women to serve for the pleasure of Japanese men. Mostly Korean girls.
Yalta Conference
February 1945, war against Germany and Japan was still ongoing, but war was considered pretty much over
The Truman Doctrine
In March 1947 the United States announced this new policy in which it would provide assistance to any "free peoples .. resisting attempted subjugation" (non-Communists)-- The US initially provided economic and military aid to Gr…
Winston Churchill
Famous for his reckless courage in war. In order to repair the British navy he (and Lloyd George) raise many taxes (or at least help make it happen), to effect conservatives, he's never ever …
The Marshall Plan
1947- a massive aid package offered by US giving food and economic assistance to Europe after WWII to help countries rebuild.
The Warsaw Pact
The Soviet Union responded to NATO by forming this organization. The alliance linked the Soviet Union with seven Eastern European countries: Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania.
The United Nations
An organization of nations that was formed in 1945 to promote peace, security, and international cooperation after WWII.
A residential district located on the outskirts of a city
White Flight
50's movement where middle-class white Americans fled to suburbs leaving inner cities in poor conditions
Beat Movement
a 1950s movement that stressed nonconformity with mainstream culture
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
accused of espionage and sentenced to death for passing atomic secrets to the Soviet Union
Sputnik I
Launched in 1957 by Soviet Union starting the "Space Race" - U.S. would go on to create NASA, and increase U.S. government spending on scientific research and education.
Rock n' Roll
became a popular music genre in the fifties with the introduction of Elvis Presley
The American Dream
An idea of success that usually involves owning a house, being able to provide a better life for your family and attain certain material objects.
Collective Security
the principal of mutual military assistance among nations (pg. 647) -Jaila
House Un-American Activities Committee
AKA HUAC; established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty on the eve of World War II (pg. 650) -Jamzyn
Hollywood Ten
group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions reguarding communist influence in Hollywood
McCarron-Walter Act
Alger Hiss
American lawyer involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S state department and the U.N official. Hiss was accused of being a soviet spy.
What did the US hope to achieve through the Marshall Plan?
The US hoped to acheive economic recovery in Europe after World War Two. Another reason for the plan was to spread Democracy and prevent Communism from spreading in Europe. (Pg. 644-645)-Jack
In what ways did Truman succeed by ordering the Berlin Airlift?
Standing up to the Soviet Union and preventing the start of another world war.
Why was NATO formed?
Pg. 647 The NATO was formed to protect Nations from invasion or destabilization by foreign governments, and to maintain world peace. Daniel
Soviet Union tested an atomic bomb and communist forces took over China. Page 648 -Claire
What were two events that occurred in 1949 that increased American concerns about the Cold War?
Why were loyalty programs considered to be unfair?
they were considered to be unfair because if you did not agree with the government politically you were most likely going to get investigated-Hayden (pg. 649)
Military-industry complex
the military establishment as it developed links to the corporate and scientific communities, employing 3.5 million Americans by 1960. (pg.656) -Ross
Douglas MacArthur
General who commanded the US forces in Asia during WW II
Why do you think that the Korean War is sometimes referred to as "America's Forgotten War?"
It was rarely thought about by the american people but never forgotten by the soldiers who fought the war (pg.652) Anna
Why was Korea "temporarily" divided in 1945?
The war ended before careful plans could be made for Korean independence, so the allies agreed that "temporarily" they would split the Korean peninsula on 38th parallel, the northern half under soviet control and…
How did the Korean War begin?
The civil war began on June 25, 1950, when the communist Democratic People's Republic of Korea attacked the capitalist Republic of Korea. The civil war was greatly expanded when the United States, and later C…
Why was the Korean War referred to as "UN Police Action" rather than a war?
The Korean War was not unchalleged beacuse they UN stepped in and helped to stop it. If it had gone unchalleged then it would be called a war. (page 654) Abby
How did General MacArthur contribute to UN success in the Korean War?
Oversaw the commanding troops. He was an UN officer and an excellent military strategist that developed a bold plan to drive invaders from from South Korea. - Rebecca ( 655)
Why was the American public frustrated with the outcome of the War?
limited results and victories, questioned whether government was serious about stopping communism, containment had occurred without nuclear war, the war ended exactly where it began after thousands of lives were lost pg. 656 -Stuart
What effect did the Korean War have on the federal budget?
It caused the military to take less than a third of the federal budget. (p. 654) -Shaylyn
How did McCarthy's smear tactics spread suspicion and fear in the US?
They worried that opposition to his tactics would brand them as Communist sympathizers. p. 658 Nyah
He recognized the risk of confronting the Soviets -Lauren (pg.659)
Why did President Eisenhower feel that the US should not become involved in the affairs of the Soviet Union satellite countries in Eastern Europe?
How was the Cold War waged in Southeast Asia?
The United States aided their ally's in this country such as the French and protected the anti communist parts of vietnam but resisted greater involvement.- Marc ( page 659)
How was the Cold War waged in the Middle East?
The Jewish people bought the land of Israel, and the Palestinians wouldn't leave. So the British left it to the UN to decide who gets the land. The Palestinians got the West Bank and…
How was the Cold War waged in Latin America?
We pushed democratic ways of government and fought against governments that were "sympathetic to radical causes." (Pg. 660) Annalyn, Colin
In what ways did the US and Soviet Union engage in an arms race during the 1950s?
Both countries began making multiple nuclear weapons; ICBM's (intercontinental ballistic missiles) started to be made in order to get the nuclear bombs to places {pg 660-661) Brian
What advances in Soviet technology increased US anxiety during the 1950s?
development of nuclear weapons, the sputnik (satellite carrying an atomic bomb), and guided missiles. p. 660-661 -Austin and Emily
George Kennan
..., an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of…
Julius Rosenberg
Los Alamos scientist convicted and executed for passing nuclear secrets to the Soviets
Kim Il-Sung
Who was the communist leader of North Korea that invaded South Korea?
Syngman Rhee
president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
Adlai Stevenson
A US ambassador to the United Nations during the Cold War.
Paul Mccartney
English musician, singer-songwriter and member of the Beatles and Wings
Yuri Gagarin
Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 was the first person to travel in space
Lee Harvey Oswald
A former marine and advocate of Fidel Castro, accused of murdering JFK with a rifle from the Texas School Book Depository.
Jack Ruby
Who killed the person that killed JFK?
John Glenn
first American to orbit the earth
Nikita Krushchev
Leader of the Soviet union during the building of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
harry truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Bill Haley
his song "Rock Around the Clock" (is arguably the first for Rock and Roll.
Dwight Eisenhower
Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II leader of troops in Africa and commander in D-Day invasion. President in the 1950s
Neil Armstrong
1st person to walk on the moon during Apollo 11 in 1969; "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
Military Industrial Complex
Eisenhower's term for a buildup between the defense industry and the Pentagon that spent billions on research and development of weapons
Inchon Landing
The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. After this, the North Koreans retreated.
An agreement to end fighting.
rock and roll
New style of music first embraced by young people in the 1950s
Kids often seen as rebels & in trouble with the law. They slicked their hair, and used switch-blade knives & wore leather jackets.
Elvis Presley
Rock singer whose hits like Hound Dog and Jailhouse Rock and flamboyant style of gyrating hips greatly influenced American culture.
bay of pigs
..., In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the inva…
spy plane that found Russian medium range missiles in Cuba.
Zapruder Film
The only known video of JFK's assassination which is the most examined film in history.
Level 242