Level 241
Level 242

Cold War III


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Warren Commission
Commission made by LBJ after killing of JFK, it was found that Oswald "acted alone" using a single-bullet theory as evidence.
Turkey
Germany's ally - the aim of Gallipoli was to knock this country out of the war.
The Day the Music died
Feb 1959. Ritchie Valens, the Big Bopper, and Buddy Holly all died in a plane crash in Clear Lake, Iowa.
Nixon-Kennedy Debates
first televised presidential debate showed the importance of being clean-shaven and being calm in front of a TV audience.
United Nations Security Council
voted to send an army to Korea to stop the Northern Korean attack. The Russians did not attend the meeting.
Robert Kennedy
advised JFK to use a naval blockade to deal with the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
JFK
President of the USA from 1961-1963. During his short term, he made a major impact on national decisions.
Duck & Cover
phrase that kids were taught during the cold war, what you should do during and atomic bomb attack to protect yourself from burns.
Apollo
NASA program to put a man on the moon, using the Saturn V rocket and the Lunar Module.
Proxy War
During the Cold War, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants.
Republic of Korea
Southern half of Korea sponsored by United States following World War II; headed by nationalist Syngman Rhee; developed parliamentary institutions but maintained authoritarian government; defended by UN forces during Korean War; underwent industrialization and economic emergence after 1950s
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Northern half of Korea dominated by U.S.S.R. after Word War II; formed a Communist dictatorship under Kim Il-Song; attacked South Korea to begin the Korean War.
U.N. Security Council
US russia, Britain, France, and china could veto any council decision
Guerilla Warfare
When ordinary peasants hid and ambushed the French army; they attacked then fled; they had the support of the British
North Vietnamese Army
Army of communist North Vietnam which supported the Viet Cong in South Vietnam w/ troops and supplies
Gulf of Tonkin
Vietmaese ships fired on US ships in the gulf of Tonkin
Tonkin Resolution
Gave the president the authority to "take all necessary measures" to repel any attacks and "to prevent further aggression." The resolution became the legal basis for a war that would last for eight more years.
Saigon
Captial of South Vietnam, capture of this city marks the conclusion of the civil war in 1975
Hanoi
Capital of North Vietnam
IRBM
Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, Any supersonic missile that has a range of 800 to 1500 nautical mi.
Blockade
What did Napoleon set up to prevent all communication and trade with his enemy Great Britain
Afghanistan
1979,The Soviet Union sent troops into neighboring Afghanistan to support its Communist government against guerilla attacks by fundamentalist Muslims.
Mujahidin
A military force of Muslim guerilla warriors engaged in a jihad in Afghanistan.
War Lords
A military commander who exercises civil power in a religion in nominal allegiance to the national government , in defiance of it, or as in China from 1916 to 1928, in place of it
Jihad
A holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Pakistan
A Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley.
Operation Cyclone
U.S. operation to aid and train Muslim fighters against the Soviet Union
East Germany
German Democratic Republic
Berlin Blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S.…
Leonid Brezhnev
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia to restore Communism
Ngo Dinh Diem
Corrupt, oppressive, and unpopular leader of South Vietnam. At first, he was supported by the US but was later overthrown and executed by his own government officials
Singman Rhee
dictator of South Korea Post WW II and into the 1950s Korean War
Kim Ill Sung
Leader of North Korea during the Korean War
Nguyen
Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Mutually Assured Destruction
A strategic policy whose premise was that war could be avoided by the certainty that both sides would be annihilated in a nuclear exchange.
Viet Minh
Communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. Leader was Ho Chi Minh.
Salt I & II
Two separate treaties signed by the US and Russia that would limit the number of weapons to their levels in the years of the treaties
Lyndon Baines Johnson
36th president took over after JFK was assassinated "war on poverty"
Richard Nixon
1969-1964; Republican; Ended Vietnam War; Recognized China/ Watergate scandal; First president to resign
Fall of the Berlin Wall
The removal of the wall that separated East and West Germany in 1989. Symbolized the end of the Cold War.
Iran/Contra Scandal
Scandal where U.S sold weapons to Iran for hostages and money to give money to the Contras
The Red Scare
(a fear of communism) emerged. This fear was fueled by (1) the recent Russian revolution, (2) Eugene Debs growing numbers, (3) loads of strikes, and (4) a series of mail bombs.
U-2 Spy Plane Incident
marking the deterioration of US relations with Soviet Union, this incident occurred when a US U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace. Although denying the plane's purpose at first, it was fo…
Space Race
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Operation Ajax
(1953) The British and the CIA reinstate the Shah of Iran in order to protect oil interests after the Iranians tried to nationalize their oil.
Brinksmanship
Eisenhower-Dulles foreign policy. Take the country to the brink of war, using the threat of massive retaliation with nuclear weapons as a diplomatic tool.
George Marshall
United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959)
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Co-conspirators who passed information about the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union, executed
per capita income
Average annual income per person
GI Bill of Rights
a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and li…
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Created in 1958 by the United States government as an independent agency for space exploration
National Defense Education Act
1958 measure designed to improve science and mathematics instruction in schools. (pg.686) -George
Harry S Truman
Roosevelt's third vice-president.
1607 Jamestown founded
First Permanent English Settlement in the Americas
1620 Mayflower Compact
Helps establish idea of self-government and majority rule
1675-1676 King's Philips War
War between New England colonist and Native Americans allow settlers to expand further into Indian lands
1676 Bacon's Rebellion
Earliest rebellion of colonist against English colonial control
1754-1763 French and Indian War
British defeat the French and gain control of most of the northern and eastern parts of North America
1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord
First battles of the American Revolution
1776 Declaration of Independence
Colonist break away from England
1781 Articles of Confederation ratified
Our first plan for a national government
Ends American Revolution
1783 Treaty of Paris signed
1786-1787 Shay's Rebellion
Makes Politicians realize that they need a stronger national government
1788 U.S. Constitution ratified
Becomes the plan for American government
1793 cotton gin invented
Makes production cotton much cheaper
1794 Whiskey Rebellion
National government proves that it has the power to enforce the laws
1803 Louisiana Purchase
More than doubles the size of the country
1804 Lewis and Clark Expedition
Expedition explores America's new territories
1812-1815 War of 1812
America proves it can defend itself
1820 Missouri Compromise
Preserves balance between free and slave states
1823 Monroe Doctrine
States that Europe should stay out of the Americas
1828 Tariff of Abominations
Leads Southerners to create the doctrine of nullification,and extreme state's rights position
1831 Nat Turner's Rebellion
Causes Southern states to pass stricter slave laws
1836 Texas Independence
Texas revolts against Mexico. Leads to the creation of the Lone Star Republic
1838 Trail of Tears
Cherokees forced to move to the West
1846-1848 Mexican-American War (U.S. - Mexican War)
This war started as a border dispute in Texas between the United States and Mexico
1849 California gold rush
Thousands of people moved to California in order to strike it rich
1857 Dred Scott decision
Increases tension between North and South, Supreme court refused to free a slave because they didn't believe slaves were or could become free citizens and be protected by the constitution. "black men don't have…
1860 Lincoln Becomes president
Causes southern states to secede
Beginning of the Civil War
1861 Shots fired at Fort Sumter
1863 Emancipation Proclamation
Freed the slaves in Confederate states
Ends the Civil War
1865 Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House
Compromise of 1877 Reconstruction ends
White Southerners regain control of their state governments
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Declaration of Independence
This document stated that power came from the people (popular sovereignty) and listed the grievances (what we were mad about) and said that the United States was free from Great Britain
U.S. Constitution
The supreme law of the land. Written in 1787 at Philadelphia Convention to replace Articles of Confederation and create stronger central government. Outlines structure & power of 3 branches of national government. Oldest written constitu…
Bill of Rights
Recognized by William and Mary which limited the powers of the monarchy, prohibited Catholics from occupying he throne and guaranteed the role of Parliament in government
John Trumbull Sr.
American Revolutionary leader who as governor of Connecticut provided supplies for the Continental Army (1710-1785); supported the colonists.
John Peter Muhlenberg
an American clergyman, Continental Army soldier during the American Revolutionary War, he served in the United States House of Representatives and United States Senate from Pennsylvania; Founding father.
John Hancock
President of the Second Continental Congress
Benjamin Rush
(1745-1813) Most responsible for the spread of moral treatment in the US. A prominent physician at Pennsylvania Hospital. Considered the father of American psychiatry.
Charles Carroll
Signer of the Declaration of Independence who showed patriotism at the time of the Revolutionary War helping to pave the way for a greater acceptance of Catholics in the new nation; only Catholic to sign the Declaration of Independence
John Witherspoon
American Revolutionary leader and educator (born in Scotland) who was a signer of the Declaration of Independence and president of the college that became Princeton University (1723-1794); the only pastor to sign the Declaration of Independence.
John Jay
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Fifth Amendment
A constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without due process of law.
Eminent Domain
Power of a government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.
Alexis de Tocqueville
French liberal politician who observed the evolution of American political thought, customs and social interaction in the 1830's. His book Democracy in America is still considered one the most accurate primary sources on American culture.
Level 243