Level 242
Level 243

Cold War IV


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Liberty
_______ Party- in response to Garrisonism, free slave AND womens rights
egalitarianism
A political philosophy that says all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights.
individualism
Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
populism
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite.
laissez-faire
Idea that the government shouldn't play an active role in regulating the economy.
E Pluribus Unum
Out of many, one
In God We Trust
U. S. Department of Treasury placed this motto on United States coins because of the increased religious sentiment existing during the Civil War; in 1955 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a public law requiring all money have the motto.
Thomas Hutchinson
1771 - became the royal governor of Massachusetts. He was a fifth-generation American, and part of the elite. Tried hard to unify the colonies and the British during the revolution.
Ohio Company
1747 - had a land grant from the government, encouraged claiming the same large territory
Fort Duquesne
He was long seen as important for controlling the Ohio Country, both for settlement and for trade. Englishman William Trent had established a highly successful trading post at the forks as early as the 17…
Fort Necessity
Washington feared retaliation, so he made his men fortify their position. Attacked by the French and the Indians
George Washington
Unanimously chosen to be the leader of the Continental Army
Tanaghrisson
The Mingo chief, who guided the Virginians to attack the French soldiers early in the morning.
Benjamin Franklin
American philosophe
Covenant Chain
an alliance with the Mohawk tribe that was reaffirmed after the Indians were not impressed with the Albany Plan
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783, which provided for the following: (1) Britain would recognize the existence of the United States as an independent nation. (2) The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of that nat…
William Pitt
(1708-1778), Prime Minister of Great Britain 1766-1768; often known as _______ the Elder
Proclamation of 1763
The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.
George III
King of England during the American and French Revolutions
Pontiac
chief of the Ottawa tribe in the northern Ohio region. attacked Britain, which was a major cause to creating the Proclamation of 1763
Molasses Act of 1733
a stiff tax of six pence per gallon on any molasses purchased by non-British sources.
Sugar Act
(1764) British deeply in debt partly to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
stamp act
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Patrick Henry
A young member of the Virginia House of Burgesses Persuaded them to take action against the Stamp Act
virtual representation
representation in an assembly when the representative is not directly connected to or from their representing region
Sons of Liberty
American patriots from pre-independence NA-British colonies. Formed to protect rights of colonists and to take fight against the abuses of the British government. Known for undertaking the Boston Tea Party in 1773 in reactio…
Andrew Oliver
the designated stamp distributor resigned after being convinced by the Sons of Liberty
Stamp Act Congress
9 colonial delegates attended in an attempt discuss and ultimately do away with the Stamp Act in October 1765.
Townshed Duties
New taxes on tea, glass, lead, paper & painters colors. Colonies response: no consumption. Created negative communication around the colonies
Charles Townshed
appointed chancellor of the exchequer (the chief financial minister) by William Pitt (granted by George III)
nonconsumption agreements
a boycott of all British-made goods
nonimportation agreements
the colonists pledged not to import or use goods imported from Great Britain.
Daughters of Liberty
An organization formed by colonial women prior to the American Revolution. They got together to protest treatment of the colonies by their British rulers. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other g…
Boston Massacre
people of Boston resented British troops, March 1770 a crowd harassed the guards of customs house, five people murdered, defended by John Adams and acquitted, Samuel Adams condemned it as a "massacre"
Frederick North
recommended a repeal of the Townshed Acts.
Gaspee
A Royal Navy ship pursuing suspected smugglers off the coast of Rhode Island
Committees of Correspondence
principal device for spreading idea that British officials were conspiring against colonial liberties, organizations would regularly exchange letters about suspicious or potentially threatening British activities
Tea Act of 1773
hoping to help the British East India Company made the price of the company's tea, cheaper than that of smuggled Dutch tea
Coercive Act
four laws meant to punish Massachusetts for destroying the tea
Thomas Gage
deemed governor of Massachusetts after the Coercive Act
Powder Alarm
Thomas Gage sent troops to capture a supply of gunpowder, but to their surprise they were attacked due to false accusations that the troops had fired on men defending the powder, killing six people.…
First Continental Congress
colonies sent delegates to Philidelphia to decide h to react to Threats to their liberties.
Minutemen
The colonial militia of Lexington, which assembled on the village green to face the British after being warned. They also attacked British soldiers by the hundreds and fired at them from behind stone walls
Continental Association
created committees of public safety
committees of public safety
each town created these to monitor all commerce and punish suspected violators of boycott.
Paul Revere
The more renowned of the colonial riders who warned of the British march to Concord
Lord Dunmore
The royal governor of Virginia - removed gunpowder from the Virginians.
Samuel Adams
From Massachusetts, he was one of the leaders of the radical faction and was even more radical than his cousin
Townshend Acts
1767 Parliament enacted new duties to be collected on colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper, required revenues raised be used to pay crown officials in the colonies, made them independent of colonial assemblies, prov…
Boston Tea Party
Americans refused to buy cheaper tea because doing so would recognize Parliament's right to tax colonies, tea on ship had no buyers, Sons of Liberty boarded the ship, dumped 342 chests of tea into…
King George III
King of England. The Declaration of Independence was written as a list of grievances against him.
Intolerable Acts
Laws passed in 1774 that punished the colonists for the Boston Tea Party
martial law
rule by the military instead of civilian authority
Second Continental Congress
Congress that met in Philadelphia in May 1775, which was divided between one group of delegates, mainly from New England, who thought the colonies should declare their independence, and another group, mainly from the mi…
Olive Branch Petition
Petition sent in July 1775 to King George III, in which the colonies pledged their loyalty and asked the king to intercede with Parliament to secure peace and the protection of colonial rights
Common Sense
Thomas Paine published this pamphlet that argued for the colonies to sever all ties with Britain; It was against "common sense" for a large country to be governed by a small, distance country.
Thomas Jefferson
drafted the Constitution; shared Locke's ideas
Patriots
The estimated 40% of the American population who joined actively in the struggle against Britain, in the Revolutionary War. The largest numbers were from the New England states and Virginia. Most of the soldiers …
Loyalists
Also known as Tories, these colonists maintained their allegiance to the king. Almost 60,000 fought and died next to British soldiers, supplied them with arms and food, and joined in raiding parties that pillaged Pat…
Trenton
Battle on Christmas day, 1776 in which Americans defeated Hessian (German) mercenaries. It boosted American morale greatly.
Saratoga
1777 battle in New York state won by the Americans which convinced France to get involved in the American Revolution
Valley Forge
After the loss of Philadelphia, Washington's demoralized troops suffered through the severe winter of 1777-1778 here in Philadelphia
inflation
a sustained increase in the price of goods and services over a period of time (think of an inflated balloon full of air)
Marquis de Lafayette
Led the National Guard, which Louis XVI allowed to be formed after the Bastille. A champion of liberty, having been involved with the American Revolution.
Charles Cornwallis
British general in the Revolution - surrendered at Yorktown
Yorktown
1781 battle in Virginia that gave Americans victory in the Revolutionary War
U. S. Constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. A Bill of Rights was added and the U.S. Constitu…
John Trumbull, Sr.
Because of his role during the American Rev., Jonathan Trumbull is one of Connecticut's best-known governors, and many historians regard him as one of its greatest leaders. He was the only governor of an Eng…
Constitution
This document is the outline of the government of the US. It also says that power comes from the people (popular sovereignty). The Constitution is divided into different sections - a Preamble, the Articles,…
Bicameral
A two house legislature
republic
a government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch
petition
A formal request for government action
ordinance
A law
depreciate
To decrease in value
Articles of Confederation
This document was the first form of government for the United States. It set up a confederation and the federal government had very little power. All the power was in the hands of the states.
Ordinance of 1785
Law that established a procedure for surveying and selling the western lands.
Northwest Territory
Lands including present day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin: established by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Robert Morris
while serving in congress proposed a 5% tax on imported goods to help pay the national debt, which was defeated when Rhode Island voted against.
John Adams
The younger cousin of Samuel Adams, a successful lawyer
Richard Henry Lee
President of the Congress under the Articles of Confederation. Proposed the the "Rights of property be clearly defined" by the government to protect the rights and interests of settlers.
Civil War
Confederacy (the Southern states) vs. Union (the Northern states), 1861-1864
First Battle of Bull Run
Also called the Battle of Manassas, by the South, it was the first major battle of the Civil War. It resulted in a Confederate victory.
Casualties
Includes dead, wounded, missing or captured. 1 out of 7 soldiers died from battle wounds. About 622,000 soldiers died from disease, not battle.
War of Attrition
A war in which one side inflicts continuous losses on the enemy in order to wear them down.
Shells
Devices that exploded in the air or when they hit something - replaced round ball ammunition.
Canister
A special type of shell filled with bullets.
Battle of Shiloh
Bloody Civil War battle on the Tennessee- Mississippi border that resulted in the deaths of more than 23,000 soldiers and ended in a marginal Union victory
Battle of Antietam
Landmark battle in the Civil War that essentially ended in a draw but demonstrated the powess of the Union army, forestalling the foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
draft
law requiring certain people to serve in the miltary
Recognition
The official acceptance of an area as an idependent nation. The Confederacy failed to achive this with the Civil War.
greenbacks
Paper currency issued by the Union Treasury during the Civil War. Inadequately supported by gold, greenbacks fluctuated in value throughout the war, reaching a low of 39 cents on the dollar.
Copperheads
a vocal faction of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. Also called Peace Democrats
writ of habeas corpus
Petition requiring law enforcement officers to present detained individuals before the court to examine the legality of the arrest. Protects individuals from arbitrary state action. Suspended by Lincoln during the Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation
Went into effect on 1/1/1863; ends slavery in rebelling states/areas of the Confederacy and turns the way into a war against slavery.
Contraband
Military supplies and raw materials needed to make military supplies.
Battle of Fredericksburg
Decisive victory in Virginia for Confederate Robert E. Lee, who successfully repelled a Union attack on his lines
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Union, led by General Hooker, was defeated by the Confederacy led by Robert E. Lee. During the battle General Thomas Stonewall Jackson was accidentally wounded here by one of his own men, and later died.
Battle of Gettysburg
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines.
Pickett's Charge
A failed Confederate assault against Union lines during the Battle of Gettysburg. Named for Confederate General George Pickett, who led the attack which ended in the defeat and death of most of his men.
Siege
A military tactic in which a place is surrounded and cut off from supplies in order to make them surrender.
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln's speech to honor fallen soldiers
Level 244