Level 243
Level 244

Cold War V


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Battle of the Wilderness
This two day battle was the second battle fought in the thickly wooded wilderness near Chancellorsville, Virginia. Union General Grant who refused to retreat was able to move his troops around the Confederates in order to head farther south.
Battle of Spotsylvania
A series of clashes, that lasted 2 weeks, between Confederate and Union forces near the court house in the small town of Spotsylvania.
Battle of Cold Harbor
Grant made the risky choice of ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate soldiers' impregnable position here in 1864. The Union soldiers advanced to almost certain death, and in only a few minutes, 7,000 men were killed or wounded.
Thirteenth Amendment
an 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution that bans slavery throughout the nation
Guerrillas
Small bands of fighters who weaken the enemy with surprise raids and hit-and-run attacks.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Civil War battle that ended in a decisive victory for Confederate General Robert E. Lee, who was emboldened to push further into the North
The Monitor
The first ironclad warship commissioned by the United States Navy. Built in only 100 days she was the Unions answer to the Confederate ship, the 'Merrimack'.
The Merrimack
The Confederate ironclad ship, later renamed the Virginia. The creating of iron clad ships changed the face of naval warfare forever.
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Robert E. Lee
Was torn by the decision to support the Union join the Confederacy. He decided to join the confederacy because he didnt want to fight against his birthplace, Virginia, which had seceded. He fought in…
Irvin McDowell
The Union General at the beginning of the Civil War who led the Northern army to desaster at the first Battle of Bull Run. He was then replaced by General McClellan.
Thomas 'Stonewall' Jackson
The Confederate general whose men stopped the Union assault during the Battle of Bull Run. Because of his actions during this battle he recieved the nick name 'Stonewall Jackson'.
Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of the Army of the Potomac (Union Army) from 1864-1865, had fought successfully in the West prior
George McClellan
Commanded the Army of the Potomac. Fought in the Eastern Theater. His plan was to land northern forces on a peninsula between the York and James Rivers southeast of Richmond and then march on…
Albert Sidney Johnston
He was the Confederate Commander at the battle of Shiloh, where he was killed.
Don Carlos Buell
He was the General who commanded the Union reinforcements that turned the momentum on the 2nd day at Shiloh.
Andersonville
The Confederate prisoner of war camp, in Georgia, that had terrible conditions for Union prisoners who were brought there.
Ambrose Burnside
Burnside was given command of the Union army after McClellan. He was a terrible leader, whose acts ended up slaughtering many of his men.
Joseph Hooker
The Union general, nicknamed 'Fighting Joe', who took over after Burnside resigned. his troops were defeated at Chancellorsville by Robert E. Lee.
Jeb Stuart
He was a Confederate cavalry officer whose intelligence reports were very helpful to Lee's army.
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Andrew Johnson
He became the 17th President of the United States after Lincoln was assassinated. He became the first President to be impeached. He was acquitted by one vote. (1808-1875)
Jefferson Davis
Confederate President
William Tecumseh Sherman
First modern general to understand the concept of total war.
Pardon
The official forgiveness of a crime.
Impeach
To charge an official of wrongdoing.
scalawag
white Southerner who supported the Republicans during Reconstruction, A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
Radical Republicans
members of Congress during Reconstruction who favored protection for black rights and wanted to ensure that freedmen received the right to vote - this was a precondition for readmission of Southern states into the Un…
Pocket Veto
The President's power to kill a bill, if Congress is not in session, by not signing it for 10 days.
sharecropper
person who rents a plot of land from another person and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop
Carpetbaggers
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states;
civil rights
the rights due to all citizens
Reconstruction
rebuilding of the South after the Civil War
Freedman's Bureau
established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War (1861-65). Some 4 million slaves gained their freedom as a re…
Tenant Farming
People who farm the land they rent.
infrastructure
The general term for highways, railroads, ports, and other things Cavour supported the construction of in Piedmont.
Solid South
A term used to describe Democratic domination in southern politics.
14th Amendment
Made former slaves citizens
15th Amendment
Provided suffrage for Black males
Black codes
1865-6 Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War, Any code of law that defined and especially limited the rights of former slaves after the Civil War.- Primary pur…
Radical Reconstruction
Congress takes charge. period beginning in 1867, when the Republicans who had control in both houses of Congress, took charge of Reconstruction. They favored policy that would give Federal gov authority to limit the polit…
Charles Sumner
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
Edwin Stanton
Andrew Johnson tried to force him to resign.
Thaddeus Stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican.
corruption
a pattern of illegal or immoral activities by government officials
Enforcement Act of 1870
This was an anti-Klan law, requested by Prestident Grant, which banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting based on their race.
Compromise of 1877
-Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the president
Nathan Bedford Forrest
He was the first leader, or Grand Wizard, of the Ku Klux Klan. He was a former Cotton planter, slave trader, and Confederate general who massacred over 300 Black men, women and Children at …
Rutherford B. Hayes
He became the 19th President of the United States after the disputed Tilden/Hayes election of 1876. His election because of the 1877 Compromise led to the end of Reconstruction.
Johnson's Impeachment
certain the tenure act was unconstitutional he fired the secretary of was stanton. house brough eleven charges of impeachment, nine were based on violation of the tenure act
Thomas A. Edison
The inventor who developed the idea of a central electric power station.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
John D. Rockefeller
The industrialist who established Standard Oil.
Andrew Carnegie
He was an industrialist who preached the "gospel of wealth".
Henry Bessemer
Introduced the Bessemer Process - new method of producing steal in greater quantities without increased costs (1856)
Monopoly
The position of having no competition in a given trade or market.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Socialism
Economic and political system where the government owns the means of production, distributes the products, determines and distributes the wages, and provides social services.
Division of Labor
when a worker would specialize in one task to build an object
cartel
A loose arrangement of similiar businesses formed to control production and keep prices high.
patent
The license to make, use, or sell an invention.
productivity
The amount of goods and services created in a given period of time.
transcontinental railroad
A railroad extending from coast to coast. Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west.
scabs
A negative term for replacement workers during a strike.
mass production
Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
collective bargaining
The process of negotiating as a group.
trust
When several companies are managed as a single unit.
economies of scale
The idea that as production increases, cost per item decreases.
vertical consolidation
When a company is able to control all phases of a product's development.
Horizontal Consolidation
The process of bringing together many firms in the same business to form one large company.
Samuel Morse
Invented the telegraph
Edwin Drake
Developed the use of steam engines for drilling oil which made removing oil from the ground more practical.
General Electric
Company that encouraged the spread of electricity, manufactured lightbulbs, and mainly made electricity available to more people cheaply.
George Westinghouse
An american entrepreneruer and engineer who experimented with alternating current electricity. He used 'transformers' to boost power over long distances which made home use of electricity practical.
Time Zones
In order to stay on schedule and avoid wrecks, the railroads standardized these in 1883. These Zones standardized the clocks throughout regions, and with 24 zones, the world.
Brooklyn Bridge
Completed in 1883, this New York suspension bridge was the first to be built of steel.
Oligopoly
A market structure in which a few large firms dominate an entire market.
Sherman Antitrust Act
The 1890 law banning any trust that restrained interstate trade or commerce.
Robber Barons
Negative term used to describe large businessmen of the late 1800's because of the fact that they used ruthless practices to destroy competition and took advantage of workers.
Captains of Industry
Owners and managers of large industrial enterprises who wielded extraordinary political and economic power. These business leader where believed to have contributed positively to the country in some way.
Standard Oil Trust
A trust created by Rockefeller, in 1881, that owned 90% of the oil refinery business.
Piecework
System in which workers are paid not by the time worked, but by the number of items they produce.
Sweatshop
A shop or factory where workers work long hours, at low wages, under unhealthy conditions.
Contract Labor Act
This 1864 act allowed companies to make work contracts with immigrants that would pay for their passage in return for a set amount of years work for the company.
Frederick Winslow Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants.
Craft Union
A labor union whose membership is restricted to workers in a particular craft.
Industrial Union
An association of all workers in the same industry, regardless of the job each individual worker performs.
anarchist
believed that the true laws of society had little to do with authority and came from the nature of society itself
Haymarket Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred. After this many people came to see unions as violent organizations.
Homestead Strike
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The …
Pullman Strike
This was a nonviolent strike which brought down the railway system in most of the West. The strike was at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages. President Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery.
The Knights of Labor
This was one of the most important American worker organizations of the 19th century. Relatively inclusive for its day in time, this union actively recruited women and blacks. Founded in 1869 with aims to…
American Federation of Labor [AFL]
Started by Samuel Gompers, this was a union for skilled laborers that fought for workers rights in a non-violent way. They were a Craft Union which organized people into smaller unions based on their specialty.
The Wobblies
This was another name for the organization of the Industrial Workers of the World. A union that was made up of a number of radicals who participated in strikes that usually became violent.
Industrial Workers of the World [IWW]
Also called Wobblies, this, A labor organization for unskilled workers, was formed by a group of radical unionists and socialists in 1905.
Samuel Gompers
president of the AFL who railed against black and Asian workers
Eugene Debs
He was the president and the organizer of the American Railway Union. He organized the Pullman Strike and helped organized the Social Democratic party.
George Pullman
He made his fortune by designing and building sleeper cars (called Pullman Cars) that made long distance rail travel more comfortable.
Level 245