Level 244
Level 245

Cold War VI


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Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.
Morill Land Grant Act
The Law Passed awarding proceeds from the sale of public land to the states for the established of agricultural and mechanical colleges.
Land Speculator
A person who buys land in the hope that it will increase in value and bring in a profit.
Exoduster
An African American who migrated to the West after the Civil War.
Nomads
People with no permanent home that move from place to place in search of food, and other resources.
Reservations
Areas of federal land set aside for American Indians.
Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Boomers
Settlers who ran in land races to claim land upon the 1889 opening of Indian Territory for settlement.
Sooners
In 1889, people who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began.
Ghost Dance
A religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead.
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place. It was the site of a massacre of Native North Americans in which between 150 and 370 Sioux people …
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died.
Chief Joseph
The leader of the Nez Perce who fled with his tribe to Canada instead of being forced onto a reservation. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations. (1840-1904)
George Armstrong Custer
United States general and leader of the 7th Calvary, who was killed, along with all his soldiers, by the Sioux at the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Placer Mining
A technique of mining where miners would shovel loose dirt into boxes and then run water over the dirt to separate it from gold or silver particles.
Long Drive
The name for the moving of cattle across the plains to the railroad terminals.
William "Buffalo Bill" Cody
He was a rugged frontiersman and sharpshooter who created "Buffalo Bill's Wild West" traveling show, one of the touring extravaganzas that enjoyed incredible popularity. This show helped add to the frontier myths and stereotypes of the time.
Homesteader
A person who received land under the Homestead Act of 1862.
Soddie
This was the type of house built by early homesteaders on the plains where trees were rare. This type of home was built out of sod, or grassy earth, and was cheap to build.
Dry Farming
A way of farming dry land in which seeds are planted deep in the ground where there is some moisture.
Bonanza Farm
When a farm is controled by large businesses, managed by professionals, and raiseing massive quantites of single cash crops.
Money Supply
The total stock of money in the economy of a country.
deflation
a sustained decrease in the price of goods and services over a period of time (think of a deflated balloon there is no air)
Bimetallic Standard
When currency consisted of gold or silver coins, or United States treasury notes that could be traded in for gold or silver.
Free Silver
A political issue that called for the unlimited production of silver coins.
Bland-Allison Act
The 1873 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.
Sherman Silver Purchase
This increased the amount of silver the goverment was allowed to purchases every month.
The Grange
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads.
Interstate Commerce Act
The1887 law passed to regulate railroads, and other interstate businesses.
Populist
A political party formed in 1891 mostly by farmers & members of labor unions who demanded government help with falling farm prices, regulation of railroad rates, and the free coinage of silver.
Coxey's Army
When unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief.
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Push-Pull Factors
Conditions that draw people to another location (pull factors) or cause people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region (push factors).
Pacific Railway Acts
A Law passed in 1862 and 1864 giving large land grants to the union pacific and central pacific railroads.
Great Plains
A vast grassland that extends through the central portion of North America, from the Mississippi River in the East to the Rocky Mountains in the West.
Custer's Last Stand
An attack on Custer and US soldiers in 1876 at the Little Bighorn River. Led by Sitting Bull, Gall, and Crazy Horse, the Native Americans killed Custer and the rest of the soldiers.
Assimilation
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
The Sand Creek Massacre
Colonial John M. Chivingtion, wanting to win a battle against the Cheyenne, took advantage of a peace agreement with the tribe when he made a surprise attack. He killed between 150 to 500 cheyenne, mostly women and children.
Geronimo
The Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation.
Sitting Bull
He was a Sioux Chief who took up arms against settlers in the northern Great Plains and against United States Army troops. He was present at the battle of Little Bighorn (1876) when the Sioux massacred General Custer's troops.
Crazy Horse
He was a chief of the Sioux, who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills, and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn.
Battle of Wounded Knee
Also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, it was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States. After the the Sioux surrendered they were rounded up and disar…
Turner Thesis
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institutions.
Stereotype
A generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among the members.
Chrisholm Trail
One of the earliest and most popular routes for cattle drives, this 'long drive' ran from San Antonio, Texas, to the cattle town of Abilene, Kansas.
Cow Towns
Towns that were at the end of cattle trails, often located on railroads and grew large as places where cattle could be bought/sold and shipped out on the railroads.
Cowboy
Cattle handlers who drove large herds across the southern Great Plains.
Monetary Policy
A Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
Cross of Gold Speech
A speech given by William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee, during the national convention of the Democratic party. He criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver.
William McKinley
-US President (1897-1901)
Steerage
A large open area beneath a ship's deck, often used to house traveling immigrants.
Ghetto
A poor, densely populated city district occupied by Jews linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Political machine
An unofficial organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power.
Social Gospel Movement
A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions which sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society.
Laissez Faire
The doctrine that believed government should not interfere in commercial affairs.
Munn v. Illinois
(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads.
Blue Laws
Regulation that prohibited certain private activities, considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays.
Quarantine
When people are placed in isolation to prevent the spread of infectious disease.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
(1883): Did away with the "spoils system" and made the hiring of federal employees merit based.
Subsidy
A government payment that supports a business or market.
Tenements
The poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived.
Graft
The use of one's job to gain profit.
Rebate
A refund one gets from the fraction of the amount paid.
Half breed
The republican reformers who supported the spoils system.
Stalwart
A person who favors the Spoils System.
prohibition
more crime and underground bushiness
kickback
Part of a monetary payment that is secretly returned to the government, typically as a result of pressure, coercion, or a secret agreement.
Alien
A person who comes from a foreign country.
The Gilded Age
This was a term coined by Mark Twain to discribe the post-Reconstruction era in America. The American Industrialists became rich and this helped cover up the abuse of power by these companies, and the state of the poor.
The Wealth of Nations
A book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics
Credit Mobilier Scandal
The Credit Mobilier company was paid exorbitant fees for laying track fo rthe Union Pacific Railroad, but infact took most of the money for themselves. They then bribed people in the government to keep out of jail.
Civil Service
A collective term for the body of employees working for the government. It usually applies to those who gain non elected possitions through merit.
The Spoils System
The practice of giving jobs to those who are loyal to your polical party, regardless of their abilities.
Jay Gould
He was a corrupt business man who owned the New York Erie Railroad Company. He kept money he was supposed to use for building projects and then bribed judges to stay out of trouble for it.
James A.Garfield
He was elected to the presidency in 1880 by a very small margin. He was assassinated only a couple months after he came to office by a mentally distubed man who felt he was wro…
Chester A. Arthur
He became the 21st President after the assassination of James Garfield. He sought to reform the spoil system and so was able to get the 'Pendleton Civil Service Act' passed.
Grover Cleveland
He was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. He was known for being Honest and hardworking and for fighting corruption. He achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform.
Benjamin Harrison
He was the 23rd President who introduced the McKinley Tariff, and increased federal spending to a billion dollars.
pogrom
organized persecution of an ethnic group (especially Jews)
Restrictive Covenant
This was an agreement among homeowners to not sell land to people of a certain ethnic group.
Gentlemen's Agreement
This was an unofficial agreement (made by Theodore Roosevelt) between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration.
Dumbell Tenement
This type of tenement was named for its shape and had to have at least one window in every room and two bathrooms to a floor. It was built like this for ventilation purposes.
Jacob Riis
He was a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities in his book "How The Other Half Lives" in 1890.
William "Boss" Tweed
He was a corrupt New York City politician who controlled most of New York City (Tammany Hall-political machine). He would promise improved public works to immigrants and the poor in exchange for their votes.
Settlement House
A community center that provided social services to the urban poor.
Hull House
This was a settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams, and Ellen Gates Starr. It provied a community center for people to take classes, and even exhibit arts and crafts from their countries.
Sociology
The social science that studies human society and social behavior.
Temperance Movement
A campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages.
Vice
Immoral or wicked behavior.
Frances Willard
She lead the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and educated the public about the dangers of alcohol abuse.
Jane Addams
She was the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes. This helped start the settlment house system in America.
Ellen Gates Starr
She was a reformer who, with Jane Adams, founded Hull House in Chicago.
Auguste Comte
French philosopher remembered as the father of Sociology.
Literacy
The ability to read and write.
Philanthropist
A wealthy person who donates to worthy causes.
Department Stores
larger stores that are organized into many separate departments, and offer many product lines.
Rural Free Delivery (RFD)
A free delivery offered by the US post office to families in rural areas.
Mail-order catalogs
Printed material that advertised a wide range of goods that can be purchased by mail.
poll tax
tax required before a person can vote, A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Level 246